NCERT Solutions Class 12 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production:
Hello, students today we are going to discuss NCERT Solutions for Class 12 biology chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production textbook solutions. In this article, we collected all the questions and answers of NCERT Biology Class 12 Chapter Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production with simple answers.
CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Notes would provide you with effective preparation for your examinations.
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An important point to remember
- Animal husbandry is the practice of taking care of and breeding domestic animals by applying scientific principles. The ever-increasing demand for food from animals and animal products both in terms of quality and quantity has been met by good animal husbandry practices.
- These practices include (i) management of farm and farm animals, and (ii) animal breeding.
- Given the high nutritive value of honey and its medicinal importance, there has been remarkable growth in the practice of beekeeping or apiculture.
- The fishery is another flourishing industry meeting the ever-increasing demand for fish, fish products, and other aquatic foods.
- Plant breeding may be used to create varieties, which are resistant to pathogens and insect pests. This increases the yield of the food. This method has also been used to increase the protein content of plant foods and thereby enhance the quality of food.
- In India, several varieties of different crop plants have been produced. All these measures enhance the production of food.
- Techniques of tissue culture and somatic hybridization offer vast potential for the manipulation of plants in vitro to produce new varieties.
- There are different Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production.
1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Answer: Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding
and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers and is as much science as it is art. Animal husbandry deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling, etc., of fish, mollusks (shellfish), and crustaceans (prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle, sheep and camels have been used by humans for products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.
- Breeding of animals is an important aspect of animal husbandry. Animal breeding aims at increasing the yield of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the produce.
- Dairy farming, selection of disease-free and suitable breeds, proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and health care are important components of poultry farm management.
- Beekeeping or apiculture is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for the production of honey. It has been an age-old cottage industry. Honey is a food of high nutritive value and also finds use in the indigenous systems of medicine. Apiculture, Dairy farming, and breeding of animals are the best Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production.
2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake
to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Answer: Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for
human consumption. dairy farm management, we deal with processes and systems that increase yield and improve the quality of milk. Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds on the
farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is very important.
For the yield potential to be realized the cattle have to be well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate water, and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle plays an important role in Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production and should be carried out scientifically – with special emphasis on the quality and quantity of fodder. Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking, storing, and transporting the milk and its products.
Nowadays, of course, many of these processes have become mechanized, which reduces the chance of direct contact of the product with the handler. Ensuring these stringent measures would, of course, require regular inspections, with proper record keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be mandatory.
3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal
Answer: A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characteristics
like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc., are said to belong to a breed. When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds
are called outbreeding. To increase growth rate. Production of milk, meat, egg, wool, etc should be higher.
Objectives of animal breeding
(i) To increase the yield of animals.
(ii) To improve the desirable qualities of the animal produce.
(iii) To produce disease-resistant varieties of animals.
4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which
of the methods is best? Why?
Answer: Animal breeding is the method of mating closely related individuals. There are several methods employed in animals breeding, which can be classified into the following categories: When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds are called outbreeding.
Out-breeding: Out-breeding is the breeding of unrelated animals, which may be between individuals of the same breed but having no common ancestors for 4-6 generations (out-crossing) or between
different breeds (cross-breeding) or different species (inter-specific
Out-crossing: This is the practice of mating animals within the same breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations. The offspring of such a mating is known as an out-cross. It is the best breeding method for animals that are below average in productivity in milk production, growth rate in beef cattle, etc. A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression.
Cross-breeding: In this method, superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed. Cross-breeding allows the desirable qualities of two different breeds to be combined. The progeny hybrid animals may themselves be used for commercial production. Alternatively, they may be subjected to some form of inbreeding and selection to develop new stable breeds that may be superior to the existing breeds.
Interspecific hybridization: In this method, male and female animals of two different related species are mated. In some cases, the progeny may combine desirable features of both the parents and may be of considerable economic value, e.g., the mule
Artificial insemination. The semen is collected from the male that is chosen as a parent and injected into the reproductive tract of the selected female by the breeder. The semen may be used immediately or can be frozen and used at a later date. It can also be transported in a frozen form to
where the female is housed. In this way, desirable matings are carried.
Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET): is one such program for herd improvement. In this method, a cow is administered hormones, with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and superovulation – instead of one egg, which they normally yield per cycle,
5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Answer: Apiculture is the scientific method of rearing honeybees.
Beekeeping or apiculture is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for
the production of honey. It has been an age-old cottage industry. Honey is a food of high nutritive value and also finds use in the indigenous systems of medicine. Honeybee also produces beeswax, which finds many uses in industry, such as in the preparation of cosmetics and polishes of various kinds. The increased demand for honey has led to large-scale bee-keeping practices; it has become an established income-generating industry, whether practiced on a small or on a large scale.
6. Discuss the role of fishery in the enhancement of food production.
Answer: Fishery is an industry devoted to the catching, processing, or selling of fish,
shellfish, or other aquatic animals. A large number of our population is dependent on fish, fish products, and other aquatic animals such as prawns, crabs, lobsters, edible oysters, etc., for food. Some of the freshwater fishes which are very common include Catla, Rohu, and common carp. Some of the marine fishes that are eaten include – Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel, and Pomfrets.
Fisheries have an important place in the Indian economy. It provides income and employment to millions of fishermen and farmers, particularly in the coastal states. For many, it is the only source of their livelihood. To meet the increasing demands on fisheries, different techniques have been employed to increase production. For example, through aquaculture and pisciculture, we have been able to increase the production of aquatic plants and animals, both freshwater and marine.
7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
Answer: Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species to
create desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better
yields and are disease resistant.
The main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are –
(i) Collection of variability: Genetic variability is the root of any breeding program. In many crops, pre-existing genetic variability is available from wild relatives of the crop. Collection and preservation of all the different wild varieties, species, and relatives of the cultivated species (followed by their evaluation for their characteristics) is a pre-requisite for the effective exploitation of natural genes available in the populations. The entire collection (of plants/seeds) having all the diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection.
(ii) Evaluation and selection of parents: The germplasm is evaluated to identify plants with desirable combinations of characters. The selected plants are multiplied and used in the process of
hybridization. Purelines are created wherever desirable and possible.
(iii) Cross hybridization among the selected parents: The desired characters have very often to be combined from two different plants (parents), for example, the high protein quality of one parent may need to be combined with disease resistance from another parent. This is possible by cross hybridizing the two parents to produce hybrids that genetically combine the desired characters in one plant
(iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants: This step consists of selecting, among the progeny of the hybrids, those plants that have the desired character combination. The selection process is crucial to the success of the breeding objective and requires careful
scientific evaluation of the progeny. This step yields plants that are superior to both of the parents (very often more than one superior progeny plant may become available). These are self-pollinated for
several generations till they reach a state of uniformity (homozygosity) so that the characters will not segregate in the progeny.
(v) Testing, release, and commercialization of new cultivars: The
newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield and other agronomic traits of quality, disease resistance, etc. This evaluation is done by growing these in the research fields and recording their performance under ideal fertilizer application, irrigation, and other crop management practices.
8. Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Answer: Biofortification – breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and
minerals, or higher protein and healthier fats – is the most practical means to improve public health. Breeding for improved nutritional quality is undertaken with the objectives of improving –
(i) Protein content and quality;
(ii) Oil content and quality;
(iii) Vitamin content; and
(iv) Micronutrient and mineral content.
9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and
Answer: Apical and axillary meristems of plants are used for making virus-free plants. In a diseased plant, only this region is not infected by the virus as compared to the rest of the plant region. Hence, the scientists remove the axillary and apical meristems of the diseased plant and grow it in vitro to obtain a disease-free and healthy plant. Virus-free plants of banana, sugarcane, and potato have been obtained using this method by scientists.
10. What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?
Answer: Micropropagation has several advantages over traditional plant propagation techniques:
- The main advantage of micropropagation is the production of many plants in a short time.
- Micropropagation is used to produce disease-free plants.
- It is the only viable method of regenerating genetically modified cells or cells after protoplast fusion.
- Micropropagation is useful in multiplying plants that produce seeds in uneconomical amounts.
- Micropropagation often produces more robust plants – like seeds or cuttings.
- Some plants with very small seeds, including most orchids, are most reliably grown from seed in sterile culture.
- In a small area, we can produce a large number of plants.
11. Find out what the various components of the medium used for
propagation of an explant in vitro is?
Answer: Tissue culture involves the use of small pieces of plant tissue (explants) which are cultured in a nutrient medium under sterile conditions. Using the appropriate growing conditions for each explant type, plants can be induced to rapidly produce new shoots, and, with the addition of suitable hormones new roots. The major components of the medium used for the propagation of explants in vitro are carbon sources such as sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids, water, agar-agar, and certain growth hormones such as auxins and gibberellins.
12. Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed
Answer: Sonalika (wheat), Jaya (rice), Pusa shudra (cauliflower), Pusa Komal (cowpea), and Pusa swarm (mustard) is the hybrid variety of crop plants that have been produced in India.