What is Chemistry ? Defination | History | Types
What is chemistry?
Chemistry is the science that studies the composition and properties of matter, including its relation to energy and the changes that take place in it. Chemistry is the science that studies the substances that combine them and their particles, as well as the different dynamics that can occur between them.
Chemistry is a great contemporary science, the appearance of which revolutionized the world forever and gave us a never-before-seen knowledge of workings of matter. Thus, chemistry offers efficient and verified explanations of complex behavior of known materials, capable of explaining both their durability and their variability.
Chemical knowledge exists in everyday life, as we use natural substances and create synthetic objects. Processes such as cooking, fermentation, metallurgy, making smart materials, and the many processes that take place in our bodies can be described from a chemical (or biochemical) point of view.
On the other hand, the dominance of chemistry led to the emergence of the industry: the transformation of materials create useful objects (or the materials needed to make them). In this sense, it is one of the most influential sciences in the history of the world and of humanity.
History of Chemistry
In a strict sense, the history of chemistry dates back to prehistoric times when humans developed an interest in ingredients and production, cooking and baking. Its connection with the technological advancement of humanity is undoubted.
The word chemistry comes from the Latin ars alchemy (“alchemical art”) and the word comes from the Arabic word “alchemy” (al-alchemy), which led to the pseudo-scientific study of stone seekers being named around 330. Theoretically, by which they can be made gold.
The first alchemists were Islamic scientists who indoctrinated the West with Christian religious fanaticism, cultivating the wisdom of elements and literature, understanding groups of bodies and thoughts that could be handled or transformed using appropriate techniques.
These mysterious characters were called “chemists”. However, From the 1st 611, with the publication of The Skeptical Chemist by the Irish scientist Robert Boyle (112-1-169 11), the meaning of the term became less meaningful and more related to science.
On the other hand, the definition of chemistry has changed dramatically over the time. Especially since his field is large and developed and he is resigning the whole scripture.
The Swiss scientist Christopher Glazer (151-16-1-1670) defined the scientific art of merging the bodies of different substances. Since 1730 the German George Stahl (1659-1734) has called it the art of understanding the dynamics of a mixture.
Until the French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas defined science is related to the intermolecular forces. Instead, today we follow the definition of the famous Hong Kong chemist Raymond Chang and understand it as a study of the subject and its changes.
However, when chemistry came into existence in the 18th century as such a recognized science, the first verifiable scientific experiments on matter took place in modern Europe, especially after John Dalton’s atomic theory of matter.
Since then, chemistry has led to numerous discoveries and revolutions. In addition, it has had a significant impact on sciences and similar subjects, such as biology or physics or engineering.
The United Nations has declared 2011 to be the International Year of Chemistry, and it is recognized as the undisputed effect of this famous scientific journey and this discipline on our lives.
Branches of chemistry
Chemistry involves vast branches, as its field of study extends to a variety of sciences and disciplines. But among these Main branches are given below :
Inorganic chemistry : is devoted to the study of matter which is not primarily product of living organisms or their substances, but is characteristic of inanimate objects. It differs from organic chemistry and it does not focus on any specific element such as carbon and other elements.
Organic chemistry : also called life chemistry, is a branch of chemistry that focuses on the compounds that revolve around carbon and hydrogen, and most allow the structure of life.
Biochemistry : Taking another step towards biology, biochemistry is the chemistry of the body of living animals, interested in the excitatory process to keep them alive, the reactions that take place in their cells and allow us to understand how our bodies are made in other areas of knowledge.
Physical chemistry : This branch studies the physical bases that support all kinds of chemical processes, especially those related to energy, such as the field of electrochemistry, chemical thermodynamics, and physics (or chemistry, as seen).
Industrial chemistry or applied chemistry : It takes theoretical knowledge of chemistry and applies it hand in hand with chemical engineering to solve the problem of everyday life. Thus, it is interested in the economic production of chemical reagents, in the literature of the novel, and in terms of carrying out industrial activities without causing much harm to the environment.
Analytical chemistry : the basic purpose of of analytical chemistry is to detect and quantify the chemical constituents present in a given substance, i.e. to find out the methods and ways of verifying what things are made and in what percentage.
Astrological chemistry : which takes an interest in the stars and their structures from the everyday world, is moving away from the hands of astrophysics. This is the most specialized branch of this vast science.
The importance of chemistry
Chemistry is available in most industrial processes as well as in our lives. Thanks to chemistry that we have created complex materials to suit our various needs throughout history.
Knowledge of chemical reactions is essential to drive your transport from metal alloys, to medicinal compounds or fuels. In fact, thanks to chemistry that we have changed the world around us, for better and for worse. Chemistry, on the other hand, will probably provide the knowledge to repair the damage done to the ecosystem throughout its history.
Applications of chemistry
Chemistry is one of the area of human knowledge which has best applications in many areas of life. Some of them, for example, are as follows:
Gaining energy : The handling of chemicals such as fuels and hydrocarbons or the handling of atomic nuclei of heavy elements can also generate calories which, in turn, generate electricity. This is what happens in a power plant.
Advanced material production : Thanks to chemistry, today there are synthetic fibers, intelligent materials and other elements that allow you to create new types of clothing, better tools and unprecedented applications to improve human life.
Pharmacology. Combining chemistry compounds hand in hand with biochemistry and medicine, drugs, painkillers and human life-enhancing and healing treatments help.
Improvement in agriculture : With an understanding of soil chemistry, today we can create substances, fertilizers and other substances. when we used properly, we can be converted into suitable soil for planting in poor soils, allowing us to cope with hunger and poverty.
By understanding the properties of hygiene and denomination sparse, inferior quality and other topical ingredients, we can create disinfectants and cleaners to live a healthier life and also find a solution to the environmental damage caused to the environment by our own industries.
Principles of modern chemistry
Modern chemistry is governed by the so-called quantum principle, the result of atomic theory that considers objects from different levels of complexity, such as:
Case Any object that consists of mass, volume, and particles. They can be pure substances or mixtures (Combination of two or more pure substances).
Chemical compounds : Chemical substances are made up of more than one chemical element or type of atom, which does not mean that they are mixtures, but substances whose particle composition repeats the same combination of different elements.
Molecule : The Combination of two or more atoms, in a minimal unit with the efficiency and unique properties, such as fruit of the features, the location and the abundance of those elements. A chemical compound can be reduced to its minimum number of molecules, but if they are “broken” there will be no more compounds and you will have only atoms, that is, the minimum number of parts that make them up.
Atom : Minimal, impractical particles, including weight, volume, stability, and electric charge, are the materials from which the bricks are made. Here is a finite number of atoms, each atom corresponding to a chemical component, a periodic table of components.
Subatomic particles : are the particles that make up atoms and give them their properties. Three types are known: electrons (negatively charged), neutrons (non-charged) and protons (positively charged). The former orbit is like a cloud in the center of an atom, while the latter consists of two nuclei and they themselves are much smaller and more insignificant fractions, called quarks.
Chemistry and Physics
Chemistry and physics are sister subjects, but they look at reality from different perspectives. If chemistry is the science of matter, its reactions and structures. Instead, that physics is the science of the forces that govern the real world, and it largely determines the state of matter (not structure).
This difference can be understood from the point of view if we consider the state of matter: a glass of water is made up of two chemical elements that determine its molecules: hydrogen and oxygen (H2O). The same situation will persist when the glass of water is in the liquid state, when it is frozen in the solid state and boiled in steam.
In each of its physical states, matter has different levels of internal energy that cause its particles to vibrate differently. There is a physical change, but not a chemical change, because water, ice and steam still have the same chemical components.
Oxide, on the other hand, is obtained by increasing the chemical reaction of water with metal, i.e., the chemical composition of both substances changes and new metal is obtained without releasing new liquid and metal iron (metal oxide). But solid is without changing the state of the material.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is chemistry in short answer?
Answer: Chemistry is the study of substances, their properties, how and why substances can be combined, or how other substances separate to form and how substances interact with energy. Chemistry is a physical science that helps to describe and describe our world.
What are the branches of chemistry ?
Answer: There are many branches of chemistry. The five main branches are considered to be Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry.
What is the study of chemistry?
Answer: Chemistry is the study of substances and chemical reactions between substances. Chemistry is also the study of the composition and properties of matter. The important thing is that anything in the world that takes place and has mass.
What is the significance of chemistry?
Answer : Chemistry is important because everything you do is chemistry! Even our bodies are made up of chemicals. Chemical reactions occur when you breathe, eat, or just sit there. All substances are made up of chemicals, so the importance of chemistry is that it studies everything.
What are the 5 types of chemistry?
Answer: There are many branches of chemistry or chemistry. The five main branches are considered to be Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry.
How does chemistry affect your life?
Answer : Chemistry is a big part of our daily lives. You can find chemistry in the foods you eat, in the air you breathe, in the soap, in your emotions, and in the everyday life of everything you can see or touch. Food is made from chemicals. Many of the changes we observe in the world around us are caused by chemical reactions.
Who is the fathers of chemistry?
Answer: Many fathers of chemistry
Another popular choice for the degree of father of chemistry is Jabir ibn Hayyan, a Persian chemist who lived around 800 who applied scientific principles to his studies. Others known as the fathers of modern chemistry are Robert Boyle, John Berzelius and John Dalton.
Why is chemistry so difficult?
Answer: Chemistry uses mathematics
In order to understand and work on the problems of chemistry you need to be comfortable with mathematics through algebra. The reason many people find chemistry so dangerous is that they are learning (or re-learning) math at the same time they are learning chemistry concepts at the same time.
Which branch of chemistry is best?
Answer: Organic chemistry offers maximum job opportunities. Although the industries of all these branches are different. Like if you specialize in physical chemistry rather than going for detergents, polymer based industries.
Which part of chemistry is easier?
Answer : Physical is usually very easy because it takes a little practice. Furthermore for stochiometry you need some organic and inorganic reactions. It also has something to do with physics. So it can be easily understood. Most of the non-living things are mugging.
What is the most difficult type of chemistry?
Answer: General Chemistry
In fact, for many, the most difficult chemistry class is the first. General Chemistry has quickly covered a lot of material, and this may be the first experience of some students in a laboratory notebook and scientific method. The combination of lecture plus lab can be intimidating.
Where can I find chemistry?
Answer : Chemistry is a big part of our daily lives. You find the chemistry of food, air, hygiene chemicals, your emotions and everything you can see or touch.
Who is the mother of chemistry?
Answer: Mary Annie Pirate Paulze
Marie-Anne Pierre Polze made important contributions to the understanding of chemistry in the late 1700s. Marie Annie married Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, known as the “Father of Modern Chemistry” and was their main collaborator and laboratory assistant.
Who is the first chemist?
Answer: Also known as Tapputi-Beltekallim (“Beltekallim”), the world’s first chemist, is a perfume-maker mentioned in a coniform tablet from about 1200 years ago in Mesopotamia, Babylonia. .
Is it difficult to study chemistry?
Answer : Scale makes it difficult
Chemistry is a huge discipline. You don’t just learn the basics and build them, but often switch gears to new territory. Simply put, there is a lot to learn to enter your brain and only limited time. Some recollection is required, but mostly you need to think.
How chemistry used in medicine?
Answer: Chemistry in medicine
A major contribution to healthcare has been made by chemistry. The development of new drugs involves chemical analysis and synthesis of new compounds. The chemistry of the disease should be studied as well as how the drug affects the human body. The drug works well in animals,