Write a short note on Deforestation ?
1. Deforestation is define as the permanent removal, decrease or deterioration of forests and woodlands.
2. Human activities (anthropogenic) through a long time are chiefly responsible for deforestation, which resulted in considerable decrease in forest land.
3. The recommended forest area is about 33% of the total land area the forest cover of India is presently about 19% only.
4. The main causes of deforestation include:
- Intensive collection of firewood, clearing of land for agriculture, developing pastures for grazing animals.
- Due to carry out mining activities, to earn foreign exchange by selling wood, to obtain land for construction of roads.
- Construction of buildings and dams, to meet increasing demand of timber wood, to acquire land for industries.
- Few natural calamities like wildfire, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms, etc.
- Slash and burn agriculture, (commonly known as Jhum cultivation) was the main cause of deforestation in the north- eastern states of India.
5. Deforestation creats several environmental problems as some important effects of deforestation are extinction of species, reduced soil fertility, soil erosion, change in
climate, shrinking fuel wood, shortage of timber, incidents of landslides, global warming, etc.
6. Conservation and management of forests:
- Deforestation can be minimize by effective control of wild fire using suitable measures.
- Regulating grazing of animals in forest lands, protection of forests from pests and pathogens.
- Economic use of timber and fuel wood to avoid its wastage, forest conservation through law, adopting reforestation and afforestation programmes, en couragings agro-forestry.
- By educating people about hazards of deforestation, etc.
- Reforestation is restoring a forest that once existed and plantation of trees in barren and unexploited land to improve environment is known as afforestation.
- Agro-forestry is using the same land for agriculture and forestry.
- Motivating people include awarding persons for their outstanding work in tree plantation would also help in this connection.
- Every year 5th June is observed as the World Environment Day.