What is somatic embryogenesis ?
Defination : Somatic embryogenesis is the process where plants or embryo is derived from single somatic cell or group of Somatic cells.
- Somatic embryo are formed from plant cell that involved in development of embryos.
- Different growth regulators are required for the somatic embryogenesis.
- Somatic embryo are mainly produced in vitro using solid or liquid media Somatic embryo are mainly produced in vitro using solid or liquid media
- Embryogenesis is a specialized Mode of development by which fertilized egg through a series of pre-determined patterns of cell division and differentiation forms an embryos.
- The embryo formed by somatic cell are called somatic embryos and the process by which somatic cell differentiated into embryos is turned as somatic embryogenesis.
- There are many plants in which somatic embryogenesis has been studied some of the examples are daucus carota, citrus sp, coffee sp and medicago sativa.
- The somatic embryos may arises directly from the explants or indirectly after callusing (callus formation)
- Somatic embryogenesis system of arabidopsis, whose Complete genome has been sequence is being develop as model system to study the genetics and molecular biology of embryogenesis.
- Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis are explants, genotypes, growth regulators, nitrogen source, polyamines, oxygen concentration, subculture etc.
Somatic embryogenesis can be carried out by 2 ways
1. Direct embryogenesis : Direct embryogenesis occurs when embryos are started directly from explained tissue creating an identical clone.
2. Indirect embryogenesis : Indirect embryogenesis occurs when explant produce undifferentiated cells or differentiated into plant tissue such as leave stem and roots.