NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 1 Living World | Easy Notes
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Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 Living world Important points to Remember
- In this chapter, we learn that the living world is composed of living and non-living organisms. There are Millions of plants and animals that have been identified, classified, and described, and still, a large number of organisms and Microorganisms are unknown. These organisms vary in terms of size, color, habitat, physiological and morphological Structure, and features make us seek the defining characteristics of living and nonliving organisms.
- To study the different types and diversity of organisms biologists have to make certain rules and principles for identification, nomenclature, and classification of different organisms.
- The branch of science dealing with these aspects is known as taxonomy. The taxonomic studies of different species of plants and animals are useful in various agricultural, forestry, industry, and in general for knowing our bio-resources and their diversity.
- The basics of taxonomy like identification naming and classification of organisms are universally evolved under international codes.
- Based on the resemblances and distinct differences, each organism is identified and assigned a correct scientific/biological name comprising two words as per the binomial system of nomenclature.
- An organism represents/occupies a place or position in the system of classification.
- There are many different categories/ranks that are referred to as taxonomic categories or taxa.
- All the categories constitute a taxonomic hierarchy. Taxonomists have developed a variety of taxonomic aids to Facilitate the Identification, naming, and classification of organisms. These studies are carried out from the actual specimens which are collected from the field and preserved as referrals in the form of herbaria, museums, and in botanical gardens, and zoological parks.
- It requires special techniques for the collection and preservation of specimens in herbaria and museums. Live specimens, on the other hand, of plants and animals, are found in botanical gardens or in zoological parks.
- The biologist also prepares and disseminates information through various manuals and monographs for taxonomic studies.
- Taxonomic keys are tools that help in identification based on characteristics of organisms.
- Biology investigatory project ideas
- What is a cell?
- Diversity in living world NEET MCQs
- Biological classification NEET MCQs
- Eukaryotic cell structure and function
- Prokaryotic cell structure and function
NCERT solutions for class 11 biology chapter 1 Living World | Easy Notes
1. Why are living organisms are classified?
- Thousands of years ago, humans realized that there is a large number of organisms and it was difficult to know all of them.
- Some people start seeking procedures to facilitate their studies. For that purpose, Aristotle (384-322 BC) tried to group them together and create a special way to name them; For this, he considered its degree of simplicity or complexity and its behavior; He also thought that there were inferior beings and other superior ones, among them the human being.
- For a long time, the best-known classification was the two kingdom classification and in that, all living things were Classified into animals and plants. But when devices such as the microscope were invented, some organisms were discovered that showed their own characteristics, different from those two groups.
- The three kingdom classification and lastly five-kingdom classification which is a universally accepted theory of classification.
- This Classifying helps us to organize, to order. In our daily life, we classify group different objects, plants, or animals, even without giving that name to our way of proceeding.
- The order that we obtain by grouping what we want to know or the things we have makes our task easier.
- Even the most recent classifications are provisional because new discoveries continue to be made about different forms of life.
- The main value of all the classifications is that they have allowed us to know, increasingly better, the different organisms that exist.
- In all the previous centuries, by ordering and studying the world of living beings, the human being has made very valuable advances.
- By classifying living things, people have come to recognize that plants and animals are no less important than we are. This has allowed us to locate the place that people have among them, not above them.
- It is accepted that the considerable different kinds of plants, animals, fungi, and Microorganisms are discovered each of these has evolutionary lineages retain their kingdom status.
- Systematists also recognize additional kingdoms within the Eukarya domain, reflecting several very early evolutionary divisions within the diverse set of single-celled eukaryotes previously clustered in the Protista kingdom.
- However, systematists have yet to reach a consensus around the precise definitions of the new prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms.
- So kingdom-level classification is in a state of transition, while systematics try to incorporate the most recent information.
- In the past two decades, a great deal of additional work has been done primarily to resolve relationships within the Eukarya domain.
- After this, the morphological and embryological characteristics are considered, followed by the phylogenetic relationship, the cytology of an organism.
- In today’s day taxonomists uses various biochemical techniques to classify the kinds of organisms based on their nucleic acid composition.
- Apparently, most of the biological diversity of eukaryotes is found among protists, and many scientists believe that it is highly inappropriate to group all protists into a single kingdom, as it was at the time to group all prokaryotes within the kingdom. Monera, since it is not a monophyletic group. Although many systems have been proposed, none of them have gained wide acceptance.
- On the basis of characteristics of any individual or its entire population helps us to identify the similarities and dissimilarities between individuals of the same kind or between different types of organisms.
- It also helps scientists to classify organisms in various categories. To study the different types and diversity of organisms we can make certain rules and principles for identification, nomenclature, and classification of individual and organism populations.
- These individuals or populations may vary in terms of size, color, habitat, physiological and morphological Structure, and features.
- Based on the resemblances and distinct differences, we can easily identify and assign a correct scientific/biological name comprising two words as per the binomial system of nomenclature.
- For that Taxonomists have developed a variety of taxonomic aids to Facilitate the Identification, naming, and classification of organisms.
- Common name: Mango
- Scientific name: Mangifera indica L
- Family: ANACARDIACEAE
- Class: Eudicotiledonea
- Geographic distribution: Native India and the Asian Tropics. It is distributed in India, it is grown in Spain, Costa Rica, Paraguay, China, Italy, the United States, and Colombia.
- From warm and temperate climates, altitude 0-1800 meters above sea level, precipitation 1500-2600 mm / year. Temperature 12-27ºC
- The term species comes from the Latin species, which means class, type, category, or characteristic aspect.
- The species is the group of organisms that can reproduce and produce fertile offspring.
- The species is a basic category in the classification of the living being, it is part of the genus or subgenus and contains varieties or races.
- In general, individuals of a species are recognized because they are similar in shape and function.
- However, many times the individuals of a species are very different.
- For example, males and females in birds are very different, tadpoles are very different from frogs, caterpillars are very different from butterflies.
- The bacterium is the smallest unicellular organism that exists on earth, it belongs to the monera kingdom and is characterized by having a prokaryotic cell.
- It is a set of organisms with equality in terms of their biological characteristics, that is, microorganisms of the same species, they are called bacterial strains or colonies.
- For example, E. Coli is a bacterial microorganism that lives in the intestinal tract and does not live alone. It does so by forming strains or colonies.
- (i) Phylum: The phylum is the second-highest unit of system of classification after the Kingdom. It includes one or more related kinds of animals. In plants, instead of phylum, the term ‘division’ is used.
- (ii) Class: The class is a taxonomic group in a classification system consisting of one or more related orders. For example, the class of the Mammalia includes many orders like Primata (Man), Carnivora (tiger), etc.
- (iii) Family: Family is a taxonomic group in a classification system containing one or more related genera, eg., Family Hominidae contains apes, monkeys, and man. In plants, families are categorized based on vegetative and reproductive features.
- (iv) Order: Order is a taxonomic group in a classification system containing one or more families. For example, the order, Carnivora, includes many families.
- (v) Genus: Genus is a taxonomic group in classification system including closely related species. For example, the genus, Solanum, includes many species such as nigrum, melongena, tuberose, etc.
- Key is the important taxonomical aid that is used for the identification and classification of plants and animals based on similarities and dissimilarities.
- The keys are based on the contrasting characters generally in a pair called a couplet.
- It represents the choice made between two opposite options. This results in acceptance of only one and rejection of the other.
- Each statement in the key is called a lead.
- Separate taxonomic keys are required for each taxonomic category such as family, genus, and species for identification purposes.
- Keys are generally analytical in nature.
- Another type of key used for identification and classification is the Polyclave or Multi-entry key.
- Generally, it is consists of a list of numerous characters. The user selects all states that match the specimen. Polyclave keys are implemented by a computer algorithm.
- Key is helpful in various areas such as agriculture, forestry, industry, and in knowing our bioresources.
- Biologists use herbarium, botanical gardens, museums, zoological parks, and taxonomical keys while doing taxonomical studies.
- Kingdom – Plantae
- Division – Embryophyta or Angiospermae
- Class- Dicotyledonae
- Order – Sapindales
- Family- Anacardiaceae
- Genus- Mangifera
- Species- indica
- Kingdom – Animalia
- Phylum – Chordata
- Subphylum – Vertebrata
- Class – Mammalia
- Order – Primates
- Family – Hominidae
- Genus – Homo
- Species – Homo sapiens
Answer: Human being is the most developed animal among all other animals. Explanation: Biodiversity is the richness of diversity among various species. … So, it is the responsibility of human beings to conserve biodiversity. A human being can conserve biodiversity as well as can destroy it. By human activities like deforestation, forest fires, etc the biodiversity of the earth is destroyed. it can be conserved by banning human activities.
- Conservation of biological diversity leads to the conservation of essential ecological diversity to preserve the continuity of food chains.
- The genetic diversity of plants and animals is preserved.
- It ensures the sustainable utilization of life support systems on earth. It provides a vast knowledge of potential use to the scientific community.
- A reservoir of wild animals and plants is preserved, thus enabling them to be introduced, if need be, in the surrounding areas.
- Biological diversity provides immediate benefits to society such as recreation and tourism.
- Biodiversity conservation serves as an insurance policy for the future.
4. Importance of botanical garden.
Answer: Botanical gardens are the places where plants of different varieties collected from different parts of the world, are grown in a scientific and systematic in vivo manner. Plants are labeled. The label-board shows the scientific as well as the common name of the plant.
1. Taxonomic Studies:
Botanical gardens provide valuable information on various plants Local flora, bonsai, rare plants, etc. They act as “outdoor laboratories” for students and researchers.
2. Botanical Research:
Botanical gardens supply a wide range of plant species, seeds, flowers, fruits for botanical research.
Botanical gardens conserve and propagate rare species and genetic diversity.
They supply facilities for courses in local flora, horticulture, hybridization, plant propagation, etc.
5. How can you, as an individual, prevent the loss of Biodiversity?
Answer: Preventing the loss of biodiversity must be the primary goal of the entire human race and must be done on an immediate basis. With a few simple habit changes and proactive actions, you can reduce your adverse impact on the environment and encourage local biodiversity.
- Help Native Pollinators.
- Reduce or eliminate pesticides and fertilizer.
- Restore habitat in your yard.
- Restore habitat in your community.
- Reduce your consumption.