Advantages and Disadvantages of Microorganisms Pdf
What are microorganisms
- Microorganisms are the small organisms that are difficult to see with the naked eye and can only be observed with the help of microscope.
- Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, algae, viruses, and some small protists etc.
- The morphological observation of microorganisms began with the invention of the microscope by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. He clearly saw bacteria and protozoa with a simple microscope.
- Study of Microorganisms known as Microbiology and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is a father of microbiology.
- Prokaryotic microorganisms are the class of microorganisms whose nucleus is undeveloped and without nuclear membrane.
- To grow, reproduce and to survive microorganisms require a source of energy (ATP) and nourishment.
- Microorganisms are indispensable friends of human beings.
- Microorganisms widely involved in many fields such as food, medicine, industrial fermentation and agriculture, environmental protection, sewage water treatment, Purification of air, Antibiotic production etc.
- As compared to large animals, microorganisms have extremely high growth and reproduction rates. E. coli can reproduce within 20 minutes.
Advantages of Microorganisms:
- Microorganisms are small in size, fast in growth, and easy to cultivate.
- It is easy to clone related genes and carry out researches on enzyme engineering, genetic engineering, fermentation engineering, etc.
- It is easy to mutagenize and breed to increase the yield
- It is easy to produce, separate and purify, and the cost is low.
- They can also be used in the development of antibiotics, biofertilizers, cleaning of the environment etc.
- They even help with the nitrogen cycle and nitrogen fixation.
- Microorganisms are widely used in industrial fermentation to produce ethanol, food, and various enzyme productions, some microorganisms can degrade plastics, treat wastewater and waste gas, etc.
- The metabolites of microorganisms can be widely used in agricultural production as natural microbial pesticides.
- Because of the short growth cycle and rapid reproduction of microorganisms, it is of great significance to be used in genetic breeding.
- Dead or weakened bacteria are used in vaccines, these are recognized by the immune system that identifies them as infections and destroys them, preventing infection forever.
- Most fungi are beneficial to nature since they disintegrate organic substances and thereby prepare the environment for the existence of other organisms, such as plants.
- Some viruses are used in experiments to modify the genetic material of bacteria or human cells but in general viruses are not part of the human body, when a virus infects humans it can increase the risk of neoplasms or cause chronic disease.
- Sewage treatment bacteria can inhibit the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms and prevent the occurrence of diseases, inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria, and reduce the production of biogas, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, improve sewage quality, and reduce sewage treatment costs.
Disadvantage of Microorganisms:
- One of the most important effects of microorganisms on humans is to cause epidemics of infectious diseases.
- Microorganisms cause illness in animals, plants, and humans.
- Microorganisms can be used in biowar and bioterrorism.
- They even contaminate food.
- Microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria are known to cause plant diseases and various other skin diseases such as TB, ringworm.
- Microorganisms can contaminate and spoil fermentation products, soil fertility, medicines with a risk of infection.
- Microorganisms come in all shapes and sizes, some of which are putrefactive, that is, causing undesirable changes in food odor and tissue structure.
- Microorganisms can cause disease and can cause moldy and rotten food, cloth, leather, etc.