Protease Production by Fermentation Process, Stages, Microorganisms

Microbial Protease Production by Fermentation Process:  Definition of proteases:  Protease is an enzyme that breaks the peptide bonds present in proteins by hydrolysis reaction. What are proteases? Protease is the enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller polypeptides or single amino acids by the process of proteolysis. Proteases are also called peptidases or proteinases or … Read more

Industrial Production of Citric Acid by Aspergillus niger | Flowchart

Citric Acid Production- History  Stages, Process, and Techniques:  Introduction:  Citric acid is a weak organic acid present in fruits such as lemons, citrus, pineapple, and other fruits. Citric acid can be produced by fermenting sugary substances such as sugar, molasses, starch, and grapes. In 1984 Abould Zeid and Ashy introduced the “Submerged fermentation technique” for … Read more

What are Biological Indicators, Examples, Applications.

What are Biological Indicators- Characteristics, Types, Advantages:  Biological Indicators are the type of microorganisms that indicate or monitor the health of the environment.  Bioindicators are the type of microorganisms that indicate or monitor the contamination in the sterilization process. What are Biological Indicators: Biological indicators are the special type of live microorganisms which has resistance … Read more

What Are Physical Methods of Sterilization?

Physical Methods of Sterilization: Sterilization is defined as a method of killing or removal of microorganisms from an object by proper physical or chemical methods.  Sterilization is used for sterilization of culture media, sterile preparations, raw materials, auxiliary materials, and medical equipment.  Sterile objects do not contain any live microorganisms. For the determination of the … Read more

Continuous Sterilization, Definition, Process, Advantages and Disadvantages

What is Continuous Sterilization, Definition, Process, Advantages, and Disadvantages  What is Sterilization? Sterilization is defined as the complete destruction of all forms of microbial life, including bacterial spores and prions, etc. Microbiological sterilization can be carried out through different chemical and physical methods. Heat is the most used method due to its great efficiency. Moist … Read more

Sterilization – Definition, Chemical and Physical Methods, Types, Advantages

Sterilization: What is sterilization? Methods of Sterilization.  Definition of Sterilization: Sterilization is the process of removal of unwanted microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, etc. from the fermentation medium. Sterilization is a process by which all living microorganisms, including viable spores, are either remove or kill from an object, body surface or medium. Sterilization is the process … Read more