NEET entrance exam is the most prestigious and recognized national level exam at present for any young aspirant who wants to qualify NEET or & Other Exams. With the main ingredients being an intense dedication and properly channelized guidance, clearing this exam also requires a pinch of passion, positive attitude, and smart work.
But let’s face the truth. Biology, Chemistry & Physics being a broader term have many subjects and topics under it. Not to scare you, but it does have a HUGE syllabus.
Hear are the some important topics for NEET Chemistry
Class 11 : chemistry syllabus
I. Basic Concepts of Chemistry (1%) :
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry
II. Structure of Atom (2%) :
Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule.
III. Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties (2%) :
Modern periodic law and long term form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements – atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, election gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence
IV. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (5%) :
ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory.
V. States of Matter: Gases and Liquids (2%) :
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, Boyle’s law, Charle’s Law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation.deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature
Liquid state – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)
VI. Thermodynamics (8%) :
First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
VII. Equilibrium (6%) :
Equilibrium in Physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium Le Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts(elementary idea).
VIII. Redox Reactions (3%) :
Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.
IX. Hydrogen (3%) :
Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure
X. s-Block Elements (2%) :
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium
XI. Some p-Block Elements (2%) :
Group 13 & 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses
XII. Organic Chemistry: Basic Principles & Techniques (4%) :
General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions
XIII. Hydrocarbons (3%) :
Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis
Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond(ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition
Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions:acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water
Aromatic hydrocarbons – introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, Benzene; resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution – Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
XIV. Environmental Chemistry (2%) :
Environmental pollution – Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, green house effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Class 12 Chemistry syllabus :
I. Solid State (2%) :
Classification of soilds based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
II. Solutions (5%) :
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of soilds in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, soild solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
III. Electrochemistry (2%) :
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis(elementary idea), dry-cell-electrolytic cells and galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion
IV. Chemical Kinetics (3%) :
Rate of a reaction(average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life(only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory(elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
V. Surface Chemistry (2%) :
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity:enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions
VI. solation of Elements (2%) :
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic methods and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
VII. p-Block Elements (5%) :
Group 15, 16, 17 and 18 elements – general introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen(Structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only)
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses
VIII. d- and f-Block Elements (4%) :
General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds.
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences
Actinoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids
IX. Coordination Compounds (9%) :
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds
X. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (3%) :
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only)
Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, tri chloromethane, tetra chloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT
XI. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (4%) :
Alcohols – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol
Phenol – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols
Ethers – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.
XII. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (4%) :
Aldehydes and Ketones – Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic acids: nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses
XIII. Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen (2%) :
Amines – nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places
Diazonium salts – preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry
XIV. Biomolecules (3%) :
Carbohydrates – classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide(glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (Starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance
Proteins – elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure
Hormones – Elementary idea (excluding structure)
Vitamins – classification and function
Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA
XV. Polymers (3%) :
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, Bakelite; rubber, biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
XVI. Chemistry in Everyday Life.
Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants
Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action
There is a lot of similarity between organic/physical chemistry section. Both involve studying too many concepts and equations but in examination, the question that you get are not easy to solve. To know how to approach these questions, the best way is to practice questions at home throughout your preparation time. In the time table make sure you have kept time for solving questions. Even if you take up 15-30 questions every day from books, you will be ready for the exam as well as be confident about NEET.
NEET is an examination for National level. Besides the clear concepts, it also demands in-depth knowledge of the subject. For that, you should refer to good books. This will help you with clearing concepts as well as will make you more knowledgeable. Also, you can refer to YB study material which covers the whole syllabus with interactive design and allows you to practice questions.
Once these indispensable resources are acquired, then shift to subject study. What you must study and where you must study from have already been discussed. Next thing that needs focus is how to study. Here again, you need to execute the following plan for the best utilization of time as well as grasping the topics