Most Important topics for NEET 2025 | Biology | Chemistry | physics

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NEET entrance exam is the most prestigious and recognized national level exam at present for any young aspirant who wants to qualify for NEET & Other Exams. With the main ingredients being intense dedication and properly channelized guidance, clearing this exam also requires a pinch of passion, a positive attitude, and smart work.

But let’s face the truth. Biology, Chemistry & Physics being a broader term have many subjects and topics under them. Not to scare you, but it does have a HUGE syllabus.

It is indeed a tough nut to crack!

Worry not! Your very own study resource, ybstudy, lists out for you a simplified version of the syllabus, to help you understand the most important topics for NEET preparation.

Most Important Topics for NEET 2025 | Biology | Chemistry | Physics

What actually makes the NEET exam so challenging is the dynamic nature of the question paper, where no questions are repeated, and hence it is also impossible to predict the topic and the corresponding number of questions in the next exam.

Also, another difficult aspect of the exam is the requirement of in-depth knowledge of topics, testing the candidate’s real conceptual level in Part C questions, sometimes even with questions combining concepts from 2-3 different units. Hence, choosing which units to prepare becomes a daunting task.

Here is the list of the Most Important Topics for NEET 2025 UG with the percentage of questions asked in the NEET Exam from that topic. This can help the candidates to be a step ahead with the preparation.

Most Important Topics for NEET

Class 11: Biology Syllabus 

Chapter NameImportant TopicsHow to Prepare This Chapter
The Living WorldCharacteristics of living organisms, Taxonomy and systematics, NomenclatureUnderstand basic concepts and definitions, Memorize key terms and classifications, Practice diagram-based questions
Biological ClassificationFive kingdom classification, Major groups: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, Viruses and LichensCreate flowcharts for classification systems, Use mnemonics for memorizing groups, Solve previous year questions
Plant KingdomAlgae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, Life cycles of plantsStudy diagrams and life cycles thoroughly, Make summary notes for each plant group, Regular revision is key
Animal KingdomBasis of classification, Non-chordates and chordates, Key characteristics and examplesUse charts to differentiate between phyla, Pay attention to distinctive features, Practice labeling diagrams
Morphology of Flowering PlantsRoot, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, seed, Modifications and functionsFocus on diagrams and their labeling, Make flashcards for different plant parts, Practice descriptive questions
Anatomy of Flowering PlantsTissues: meristematic and permanent, Tissue systems, anatomy of dicot and monocot plantsDraw and label diagrams of tissue structures, Summarize differences between dicots and monocots, Practice cross-sectional views
Structural Organisation in AnimalsAnimal tissues, Morphology and anatomy of earthworm, cockroach, and frogMemorize key functions of different tissues, Use diagrams for anatomical studies, Regularly revise animal morphology
Cell: The Unit of LifeCell theory, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, Cell organelles and their functionsFocus on the structure and function of organelles, Use diagrams to understand cell structures, Make comparative notes for prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells
BiomoleculesStructure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, EnzymesUnderstand basic biochemical structures, Solve numerical problems on enzyme kinetics, Revise key concepts regularly
Cell Cycle and Cell DivisionPhases of cell cycle, Mitosis and meiosis, Significance of cell divisionCreate charts for cell cycle phases, Practice diagrams of mitosis and meiosis, Understand the significance of each process
Transport in PlantsMeans of transport, Water absorption and transpiration, Phloem transportDiagram-based learning of transport mechanisms, Practice questions on transpiration and its factors, Revise transport processes thoroughly
Mineral NutritionEssential minerals and their functions, Deficiency symptoms, Nitrogen cycleMemorize functions and deficiency symptoms, Study the nitrogen cycle in detail, Use flowcharts to remember processes
Photosynthesis in Higher PlantsPhotosynthetic pigments, Light reaction, Calvin cycle, C4 pathway and CAM plantsFocus on the stages of photosynthesis, Draw and label diagrams of the Calvin cycle, Understand differences between C3, C4, and CAM pathways
Respiration in PlantsGlycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron transport chain, FermentationCreate detailed notes on each respiration stage, Practice numerical problems related to ATP production, Revise key steps regularly
Plant Growth and DevelopmentGrowth regulators, Photoperiodism, VernalizationMemorize the roles of different growth regulators, Use diagrams to understand photoperiodism, Summarize key concepts in short notes
Digestion and AbsorptionDigestive system organs, Digestive processes, Absorption of digested productsStudy the structure and function of each organ, Use flowcharts to visualize digestion processes, Practice diagram-based questions
Breathing and Exchange of GasesHuman respiratory system, Mechanism of breathing, Transport of gases, regulation of respirationUnderstand the mechanics of breathing, Study gas exchange at the alveoli level, Revise respiratory system diagrams
Body Fluids and CirculationComposition of blood, Human circulatory system, Cardiac cycle and ECGMemorize blood components and their functions, Study the structure of the heart and blood vessels, Practice questions on ECG interpretation
Excretory Products and Their EliminationHuman excretory system, Urine formation, Regulation of kidney functionFocus on the structure and function of kidneys, Use diagrams to understand urine formation, Revise regulatory mechanisms of kidney function
Locomotion and MovementTypes of movement, Skeletal system, Muscle contractionUnderstand different types of movements, Study the structure of bones and joints, Practice questions on muscle contraction mechanisms
Neural Control and CoordinationNervous system structure, Neuron function, Reflex action, sensory organsMemorize the structure and function of neurons, Study different parts of the brain and spinal cord, Practice labeling diagrams of the nervous system
Chemical Coordination and IntegrationEndocrine glands and hormones, Hormonal disorders, Feedback mechanismsLearn the functions of different hormones, Understand hormonal regulation and feedback loops, Summarize hormonal disorders and their symptoms

Unit I. Diversity of Living Organisms (14%) 

Chapter-1: The Living World :
You can prepare for living, diversity, taxonomic categories, taxonomical aids,

Chapter-2: Biological Classification :
Classification of organisms, kingdom monera, kingdom fungi, kingdom animalia, viruses, viroids, linches,

Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom : Algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms, plant life cycle, alterations of generations.

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom : basis of classification, animal classification, symmetry,

Unit II. Structural Organisation in Plants & Animals (5%) 

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants : Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flowers, fruits, seed, typical flowering plants, some important families, modifications of root, stem, leaf etc.

Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants :  tissue, tissue system, anatomy of dicotyledons, anatomy of monocotyledons, secondary growth,meristem, cambium, morphology, anatomy.

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals : Animal tissue, organ, organ system, earthworm, cockroach, frog’s, anatomy, morphology.

Unit III. Cell: Structure and Function (9%) 

Chapter 8: Cell-The Unit of Life : cell, cell theory’s, overview of cells, prokaryotic cell, Eukaryotic cells, cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules : chemical composition, structure, functions, role, primary and secondary metabolite, proteins, polypeptides, carbohydrates, vitamins, macromolecules, micromolecules, structure of proteins, nucleic acids, Nature of bonds, metabolism,  living state, enzymes.

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division :cell cycle, M phase,  significance of mitosis, meiosis, cytokinesis, karyokinesis.

Unit IV. Plant Physiology (6%) 

Chapter-11: Transport in Plants
Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition
Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants
Chapter 15: Plant – Growth and Development

Unit V. Human Physiology 20%
Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption.
Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases.
Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation
Chapter 19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination.
Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement
Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination.
Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration.

Class 12 biology syllabus

Chapter NameImportant TopicsHow to Prepare This Chapter
Reproduction in OrganismsAsexual and sexual reproduction, Modes of reproduction, Life cycles of plants and animalsUnderstand basic concepts of asexual and sexual reproduction, Memorize life cycles, Practice diagram-based questions
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering PlantsStructure of flower, Pollination, Fertilization, Development of seeds and fruitsFocus on flower structure and functions, Use diagrams to understand pollination and fertilization, Regularly revise key processes
Human ReproductionMale and female reproductive systems, Gametogenesis, Menstrual cycle, Fertilization and pregnancy, Parturition and lactationStudy diagrams of reproductive systems, Understand hormonal control, Practice questions on reproductive health
Reproductive HealthContraception and birth control, Reproductive health problems and strategies, Assisted reproductive technologiesMemorize methods of contraception, Understand common reproductive health issues, Summarize key points in short notes
Principles of Inheritance and VariationMendelian inheritance, Deviations from Mendelism, Chromosomal theory of inheritance, Sex determination, Genetic disordersCreate charts for Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance, Solve problems on genetics, Use diagrams to understand chromosomal behavior
Molecular Basis of InheritanceDNA structure and replication, Transcription, Translation, Gene expression and regulation, Human genome project, DNA fingerprintingFocus on DNA replication and protein synthesis, Understand gene regulation mechanisms, Use flowcharts for genetic processes
EvolutionOrigin of life, Theories of evolution, Evidence for evolution, Adaptive radiation, Human evolutionMemorize key evolutionary theories, Study evidence supporting evolution, Summarize human evolutionary stages
Human Health and DiseaseCommon diseases in humans, Immunity, Vaccination, AIDS, Cancer, Drugs and alcohol abuseUnderstand mechanisms of diseases and immunity, Memorize symptoms and treatments of common diseases, Regularly revise immune responses
Strategies for Enhancement in Food ProductionPlant breeding, Animal husbandry, Single cell protein, Tissue cultureFocus on methods of plant and animal breeding, Use diagrams to understand tissue culture techniques, Summarize key strategies for food production
Microbes in Human WelfareRole of microbes in food production, Antibiotics and chemicals, Biogas production, Microbes in sewage treatment, Bio-control agents and bio-fertilizersMemorize the role of different microbes, Study industrial applications, Practice questions on microbial processes
Biotechnology: Principles and ProcessesGenetic engineering, Recombinant DNA technology, Cloning, PCR, Applications of biotechnologyUnderstand techniques of genetic engineering, Use diagrams to visualize processes, Solve questions on biotechnological applications
Biotechnology and Its ApplicationsApplications in agriculture, Medicine, Transgenic organisms, Ethical issuesMemorize key applications of biotechnology, Study examples of transgenic organisms, Understand ethical implications
Organisms and PopulationsOrganism and its environment, Populations and ecological adaptations, Population interactionsUnderstand ecological principles and adaptations, Use charts to study population interactions, Regularly revise key concepts
EcosystemStructure and function of ecosystem, Energy flow, Ecological pyramids, Nutrient cycles, Ecosystem servicesFocus on ecosystem dynamics, Memorize nutrient cycles, Use diagrams to understand energy flow and ecological pyramids
Biodiversity and ConservationLevels of biodiversity, Importance of biodiversity, Threats to biodiversity, Conservation methodsMemorize key terms and concepts, Study conservation strategies, Regularly revise important points
Environmental IssuesAir and water pollution, Solid waste management, Ozone depletion, Deforestation, Global warmingUnderstand causes and effects of environmental issues, Memorize solutions and management practices, Summarize key points in short notes

UNIT I: Reproduction

Reproduction in organisms (9%) : Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction — Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

 Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies — IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general  awareness).

UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution (18%)

Heredity and variation:
Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome  theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution;Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare (9%)

Health and Disease;
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare:
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications Principles and process of Biotechnology (4%)

Genetic engineering. Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V: Ecology and environment (6%)

Organisms and environment:

Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow;

Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

Class 11 Physics Syllabus

Chapter NameImportant TopicsHow to Prepare This Chapter
Physical WorldScope and excitement of physics, Nature of physical lawsUnderstand the basic concepts and scope of physics, Memorize key physical laws, Read about historical perspectives
Units and MeasurementsSystems of units, Measurement of length, mass, and time, Significant figures, Dimensional analysisPractice problems on unit conversions and significant figures, Use dimensional analysis for verifying equations
Motion in a Straight LinePosition, path length, displacement, Speed and velocity, Acceleration, Kinematic equations, Graphical representation of motionSolve numerous problems on kinematic equations, Practice interpreting graphs, Understand differences between scalar and vector quantities
Motion in a PlaneScalars and vectors, Addition and subtraction of vectors, Projectile motion, Uniform circular motionPractice vector addition and subtraction, Solve problems on projectile and circular motion, Use diagrams to visualize concepts
Laws of MotionNewton’s laws of motion, Inertia, Impulse and momentum, Law of conservation of momentumMemorize Newton’s laws and their applications, Solve problems on impulse and momentum, Understand the concept of inertial and non-inertial frames
Work, Energy, and PowerWork done by a constant and variable force, Kinetic and potential energy, Power, Law of conservation of energyPractice problems on work-energy theorem, Understand the conservation of energy principle, Solve numerical problems on power
System of Particles and Rotational MotionCenter of mass, Torque, Angular momentum, Moment of inertia, Rotational kinetic energy, Rolling motionSolve problems on torque and angular momentum, Understand the concept of moment of inertia, Practice problems on rolling motion
GravitationKepler’s laws, Universal law of gravitation, Gravitational potential energy, Escape speed, SatellitesMemorize Kepler’s laws and their applications, Solve problems on gravitational potential and escape velocity, Understand satellite motion
Mechanical Properties of SolidsElasticity, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, Bulk modulus, Shear modulusPractice problems on stress and strain, Understand different types of moduli, Solve numerical problems on elasticity
Mechanical Properties of FluidsPressure, Pascal’s law, Buoyancy, Viscosity, Reynolds number, Bernoulli’s principleSolve problems on fluid pressure and buoyancy, Understand applications of Bernoulli’s principle, Practice numerical problems on viscosity
Thermal Properties of MatterHeat, temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Heat transferMemorize key concepts of heat and temperature, Solve problems on thermal expansion and calorimetry, Understand different methods of heat transfer
ThermodynamicsZeroth law, First law of thermodynamics, Heat engines, Second law of thermodynamics, EntropyUnderstand and memorize the laws of thermodynamics, Solve problems on heat engines and entropy, Use PV diagrams for visualizing processes
Kinetic TheoryMolecular nature of matter, Ideal gas law, Kinetic theory of gases, Degrees of freedom, Mean free pathPractice problems on the ideal gas law and kinetic theory, Understand degrees of freedom and their applications, Solve numerical problems on mean free path
OscillationsSimple harmonic motion (SHM), Oscillations of a spring, Energy in SHM, Damped and forced oscillations, ResonancePractice problems on SHM and energy, Understand the concepts of damping and resonance, Solve numerical problems on oscillations
WavesTypes of waves, Wave speed, Superposition principle, Reflection and refraction of waves, Standing waves, Doppler effectMemorize key concepts of wave mechanics, Solve problems on wave speed and superposition, Understand the Doppler effect and its applications

Unit 1 – Physical World and Measurement (2%)

scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; physics, technology and society, Need for measurement – units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures, Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis.

Unit 2 – Kinematics (3%)

Frame of reference, motion in a straight line; position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment)

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity

Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components

Scalar and vector products of vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration – projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

Unit 3 – Laws of Motion (3%)

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road)

Unit 4 – Work, Energy and Power (4%)

Word done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit 5 – Motion of Systems of Particles and Rigid body (5%)

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid; Centre of mass of uniform rod,

Momentum of a force – torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples,

Equillibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparision of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications

Unit 6 – Gravitation (2%)

Kepler’s law of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth

Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites

Unit 7 – Properties of Bulk Matter (3%)

Elastic behaviour, stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy

Viscosity, Stoke’s law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat of capacity:Cp, Cv-calorimetry; change of state-latent heat.

Heat transfer – conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black body radiation. Wein’s displacement law, and green house effect. Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law

Unit 8 – Thermodynamics (9%)

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators

Unit 9 – Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory (3%)

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas

Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (Statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path

Unit 10 – Oscillations and Waves (3%)

Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM – Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; free and forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance

Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus

Chapter NameImportant TopicsHow to Prepare This Chapter
Electric Charges and FieldsCoulomb’s law, Electric field and potential, Electric dipole, Gauss’s law, Field linesUnderstand and memorize Coulomb’s law and Gauss’s law, Solve problems on electric field and potential, Use diagrams to visualize electric field lines
Electrostatic Potential and CapacitanceElectric potential energy, Equipotential surfaces, Capacitance, Capacitors in series and parallel, Energy stored in a capacitorPractice problems on electric potential and capacitance, Memorize key formulas, Understand the concept of equipotential surfaces and energy storage
Current ElectricityOhm’s law, Drift velocity, Electrical resistance and resistivity, Series and parallel circuits, Kirchhoff’s laws, Wheatstone bridgeSolve numerous circuit problems, Understand the applications of Kirchhoff’s laws, Practice problems on the Wheatstone bridge and meter bridge
Moving Charges and MagnetismBiot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor, Moving coil galvanometerMemorize Biot-Savart and Ampere’s laws, Solve problems on magnetic force and torque, Understand the working principle of a moving coil galvanometer
Magnetism and MatterMagnetic properties of materials, Earth’s magnetism, Magnetic field lines, HysteresisStudy the magnetic properties of different materials, Understand the concept of Earth’s magnetism, Practice problems on magnetic field lines and hysteresis
Electromagnetic InductionFaraday’s laws, Lenz’s law, Induced emf and current, Eddy currents, Self and mutual inductionMemorize Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws, Solve problems on induced emf and current, Understand the applications of eddy currents and inductance
Alternating CurrentAC voltage and current, Reactance and impedance, LC, RC, and LCR circuits, Resonance, Power in AC circuits, TransformersPractice problems on AC circuits and impedance, Understand the concept of resonance, Solve numerical problems on transformers and power calculations
Electromagnetic WavesDisplacement current, Electromagnetic spectrum, Propagation of electromagnetic waves, Applications of EM wavesMemorize the electromagnetic spectrum, Understand the concept of displacement current, Study the applications of different types of EM waves
Ray Optics and Optical InstrumentsReflection and refraction of light, Lens formula, Magnification, Optical instruments, Total internal reflection, DispersionPractice problems on lens formula and magnification, Understand the working of optical instruments, Solve numerical problems on reflection, refraction, and dispersion
Wave OpticsInterference, Young’s double-slit experiment, Diffraction, PolarizationMemorize key concepts of interference and diffraction, Understand Young’s double-slit experiment, Practice problems on polarization and wave optics phenomena
Dual Nature of Radiation and MatterPhotoelectric effect, Einstein’s equation, Matter waves, de Broglie wavelength, Davisson-Germer experimentUnderstand the photoelectric effect and Einstein’s equation, Solve problems on matter waves and de Broglie wavelength, Study the Davisson-Germer experiment
AtomsRutherford’s model, Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom, Energy levels, Spectral seriesMemorize the key points of Rutherford’s and Bohr’s models, Solve problems on energy levels and spectral series, Understand the concept of atomic spectra
NucleiProperties of nucleus, Nuclear binding energy, Radioactivity, Decay laws, Mass-energy equivalenceStudy the properties and composition of the nucleus, Understand radioactivity and decay laws, Solve numerical problems on nuclear binding energy and mass-energy equivalence
Semiconductor ElectronicsIntrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, p-n junction, Diodes and their applications, Transistors, Logic gatesUnderstand the concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Solve problems on p-n junction diodes and transistors, Study the applications of logic gates
Communication SystemsElements of communication systems, Modulation and demodulation, Bandwidth of signals, Satellite communicationMemorize the elements of communication systems, Understand modulation and demodulation techniques, Study the applications of satellite communication

Unit 1 – Electrostatics (9%)

Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque,
Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet,

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field  Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of

Unit 2 – Current Electricity (8%)

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity

Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance, Kirchoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge, Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell

Unit 3 – Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism (5%)

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter, Para -, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.

Unit 4 – Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current (8%)

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s law, eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current

Unit 5 – Electromagnetic waves (5%) : Need for displacement current

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, micro waves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit 6 – Optics (3%)

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light – blue color of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset

Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hyper myopia) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts

Unit 7 – Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation (6%)

Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light

Matter waves – wave nature of particles, deBrogile relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained)

Unit 8 – Atoms and Nuclei (3%)

Alpha – particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model fo atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones

Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission and fusion

Unit 9 – Electronic Devices (9%)

Energy bands in soilds (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

Class 11: Chemistry Syllabus

Chapter NameImportant TopicsHow to Prepare This Chapter
Some Basic Concepts of ChemistryMole concept, Molarity and molality, Stoichiometry, Empirical and molecular formulaeUnderstand the mole concept thoroughly, Practice stoichiometry problems, Memorize key formulas and conversions
Structure of AtomBohr’s model, Quantum mechanical model, Quantum numbers, Electronic configuration, Atomic spectraStudy Bohr’s and quantum mechanical models, Memorize electronic configurations, Practice problems on quantum numbers and spectra
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in PropertiesModern periodic table, Periodic trends (ionization energy, atomic radius, electronegativity)Memorize periodic trends and their explanations, Understand the structure of the modern periodic table, Solve related problems
Chemical Bonding and Molecular StructureIonic bond, Covalent bond, VSEPR theory, Hybridization, Molecular orbital theory, Hydrogen bondingPractice Lewis structures and VSEPR theory, Memorize types of hybridization and their geometries, Solve problems on molecular orbital theory
States of Matter: Gases and LiquidsGas laws, Ideal gas equation, Real gases (van der Waals equation), Liquefaction of gases, Surface tension, ViscosityUnderstand and apply gas laws, Practice problems on the ideal and real gases, Memorize key concepts of surface tension and viscosity
ThermodynamicsFirst law of thermodynamics, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, Gibbs free energy, Hess’s law, SpontaneityMemorize key thermodynamic equations, Solve numerical problems on enthalpy and entropy changes, Understand the concept of spontaneity and Gibbs free energy
EquilibriumEquilibrium in physical and chemical processes, Le Chatelier’s principle, Ionic equilibrium, pH, Buffer solutionsPractice problems on equilibrium constant and Le Chatelier’s principle, Understand ionic equilibrium and calculations involving pH and buffers
Redox ReactionsOxidation and reduction, Redox reactions, Balancing redox reactions, Electrochemical seriesMemorize the rules for assigning oxidation numbers, Practice balancing redox reactions, Understand the electrochemical series and its applications
HydrogenIsotopes of hydrogen, Hydrides, Water and its properties, Hydrogen peroxide, Heavy waterStudy the properties and applications of hydrogen and its compounds, Memorize key reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide and heavy water
s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)General properties, Important compounds (sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, calcium oxide, calcium carbonate)Memorize the trends and properties of s-block elements, Study the preparation and properties of important compounds, Solve related problems
Some p-Block ElementsGeneral trends in properties of boron, carbon, and nitrogen groups, Important compounds (borax, orthoboric acid, diborane, ammonia, nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen)Understand periodic trends in the p-block, Study the preparation and properties of important compounds, Memorize key reactions and uses
Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and TechniquesNomenclature, Isomerism, Electron displacement effects, Purification and qualitative analysis of organic compoundsPractice naming organic compounds and identifying isomers, Understand the electron displacement effects, Study techniques for purification and analysis
HydrocarbonsAlkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatic hydrocarbons, Reactions (free radical substitution, electrophilic addition, electrophilic substitution)Memorize the properties and reactions of different hydrocarbons, Practice mechanisms of key reactions, Solve problems on reaction intermediates
Environmental ChemistryEnvironmental pollution, Greenhouse effect, Ozone depletion, Water pollution, Soil pollutionUnderstand the causes and effects of different types of pollution, Memorize key environmental issues and their mitigation strategies, Study the impact of pollutants on health and environment

I. Basic Concepts of Chemistry (1%) :
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry

II. Structure of Atom (2%) : 
Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum  numbers, shapes of s,p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule.

III. Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties (2%) :
Modern periodic law and long term form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements – atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, election gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence

IV. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (5%) :
ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory.

V. States of Matter: Gases and Liquids (2%) :
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, Boyle’s law, Charle’s Law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation.deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature Liquid state – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)

VI. Thermodynamics (8%) :
First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.

VII. Equilibrium (6%) :
Equilibrium in Physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium Le Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts(elementary idea).

VIII. Redox Reactions (3%) :
Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.

IX. Hydrogen (3%) :
Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure

X. s-Block Elements (2%) : 
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium

XI. Some p-Block Elements (2%) :
Group 13 & 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses

XII. Organic Chemistry: Basic Principles & Techniques (4%) :
General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions

XIII. Hydrocarbons (3%) :
Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis

Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond(ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition

Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions:acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water

Aromatic hydrocarbons – introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, Benzene; resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution – Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

XIV. Environmental Chemistry (2%) :
Environmental pollution – Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, green house effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

Class 12 Chemistry syllabus

Chapter NameImportant TopicsHow to Prepare This Chapter
The Solid StateTypes of solids, Crystal lattices and unit cells, Packing efficiency, Imperfections in solids, Electrical and magnetic propertiesUnderstand different types of solids and their properties, Memorize unit cell parameters and packing efficiency, Solve problems on defects and properties
SolutionsTypes of solutions, Concentration terms (molarity, molality), Raoult’s law, Colligative properties, Abnormal molar massPractice numerical problems on concentration terms, Understand and apply Raoult’s law, Study colligative properties and their applications
ElectrochemistryElectrochemical cells, Galvanic cells, Nernst equation, Conductance, Electrolytic cells, Faraday’s laws, Batteries, CorrosionMemorize key equations and laws, Solve numerical problems on electrochemical cells and conductance, Understand the principles of batteries and corrosion
Chemical KineticsRate of reaction, Factors affecting rate, Order and molecularity, Rate laws, Integrated rate equations, Collision theoryPractice problems on rate laws and order of reactions, Understand the integrated rate equations, Study collision theory and activation energy
Surface ChemistryAdsorption, Catalysis, Colloids, Emulsions, Applications of colloidsUnderstand the concepts of adsorption and catalysis, Memorize the properties of colloids and their applications, Solve problems on colloidal systems
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of ElementsPrinciples of extraction of metals, Ellingham diagram, Refining, Uses of aluminium, copper, zinc, and ironStudy the principles and methods of metal extraction, Understand the Ellingham diagram, Memorize refining processes and uses of key metals
p-Block ElementsProperties of group 15, 16, 17, and 18 elements, Important compounds (ammonia, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, halogens, interhalogens, xenon fluorides)Memorize the trends and properties of p-block elements, Study the preparation and properties of important compounds, Understand their uses and reactions
d and f Block ElementsProperties of transition metals, Lanthanoids and actinoids, Important compounds (potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate)Understand the trends and properties of d and f block elements, Memorize key reactions and compounds, Solve problems on the chemical behavior of these elements
Coordination CompoundsNomenclature, Bonding in coordination compounds, Crystal field theory, Isomerism, Importance of coordination compoundsPractice naming coordination compounds, Understand crystal field theory and types of isomerism, Study the applications of coordination compounds
Haloalkanes and HaloarenesNomenclature, Nature of C-X bond, Mechanisms of substitution and elimination reactions, Polyhalogen compoundsMemorize the properties and reactions of haloalkanes and haloarenes, Practice mechanisms of substitution and elimination, Study the environmental impact of polyhalogen compounds
Alcohols, Phenols, and EthersNomenclature, Properties of alcohols, phenols, and ethers, Reactions (dehydration, oxidation, electrophilic substitution)Understand the physical and chemical properties, Practice the key reactions and mechanisms, Solve problems on synthesis and reactivity
Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic AcidsNomenclature, Properties and reactivity of carbonyl group, Nucleophilic addition reactions, Acidity of carboxylic acids, Derivatives of carboxylic acidsMemorize the properties and reactions of carbonyl compounds, Practice nucleophilic addition mechanisms, Study the derivatives and their reactions
Organic Compounds Containing NitrogenAmines, Diazonium salts, Cyanides and isocyanides, Reactions and basicity of amines, Preparation and properties of diazonium saltsUnderstand the properties and reactions of nitrogen-containing compounds, Memorize the preparation and reactions of diazonium salts, Practice problems on synthesis and reactivity
BiomoleculesCarbohydrates, Proteins, Enzymes, Vitamins, Nucleic acids, HormonesStudy the structure and functions of biomolecules, Memorize the classification and properties, Understand the biological significance of each class
PolymersClassification, Types of polymerization, Properties of polymers, Common polymers (natural and synthetic)Understand the types and mechanisms of polymerization, Memorize the properties and uses of common polymers, Study the environmental impact of synthetic polymers
Chemistry in Everyday LifeDrugs and their classification, Chemicals in food, Cleansing agents, Therapeutic action of different classes of drugsStudy the different types of drugs and their functions, Understand the chemical basis of food additives and cleansing agents, Memorize the therapeutic uses of various drugs

I. Solid State (2%) :
Classification of soilds based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

II. Solutions (5%) :
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of soilds in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, soild solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.

III. Electrochemistry (2%) :
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis(elementary idea), dry-cell-electrolytic cells and galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion

IV. Chemical Kinetics (3%) :
Rate of a reaction(average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life(only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory(elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

V. Surface Chemistry (2%) :
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity:enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions

VI. solation of Elements (2%) :
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic methods and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron

VII. p-Block Elements (5%) :
Group 15, 16, 17 and 18 elements – general introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen(Structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only) General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses

VIII. d- and f-Block Elements (4%) :
General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds.

Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences

Actinoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids

IX. Coordination Compounds (9%) :
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds

X. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (3%) :
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation

Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, tri chloromethane, tetra chloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT

XI. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (4%) :
Alcohols – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol

Phenol – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols

Ethers – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.

XII. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (4%) :
Aldehydes and Ketones – Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic acids: nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses

XIII. Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen (2%) :
Amines – nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places Diazonium salts – preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry

XIV. Biomolecules (3%) :
Carbohydrates – classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide(glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (Starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance Proteins – elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure Hormones – Elementary idea (excluding structure) Vitamins – classification and function Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA

XV. Polymers (3%) :
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, Bakelite; rubber, biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

XVI. Chemistry in Everyday Life.
Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action

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