Updated CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus

The CBSE class 11 biology syllabus introduces students to new concepts and contemporary areas of the subject. It emphasizes the fundamental principles common to both animals and plants and shows the connection of Biology with other fields of knowledge.

The CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus is structured in a simple and sequential manner, making it easy to understand. It uses technology to relate biology to real-life scenarios, such as the environment, industry, health, and agriculture. The updated CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus aims to reduce the curriculum load while ensuring that students still have plenty of opportunities to learn and appreciate the basic concepts of biology.

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus
The prescribed CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus is expected to
  1. Promote understanding of basic principles of Biology; encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society.
  2. Promote rational/scientific attitude towards issues related to population, environment and development;
  3. Enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and their appropriate solutions;
  4. Create awareness amongst the learners about diversity in the living organisms and developing respect for other living beings;
  5. Appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are built on essentially simple processes;
  6. It is expected that the students would get an exposure to various branches of Biology in the syllabus in a more contextual and friendly manner as they study its various units.

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus 2024-25

CBSE has introduced a new syllabus for Class 11 Biology in the academic year 2024-25. This updated syllabus, based on NCERT textbooks, includes a detailed breakdown of topics and marks allocation for each unit. It’s not only beneficial for exam preparation but also helps students prepare for exams like NEET. To ensure students have a clear understanding of the new syllabus, ybstudy offers the CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus for the academic year 2024-25, available for free download in PDF format.

Check out the latest and detailed syllabus for CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus below. Designed with a clear format and a logical flow of concepts, this syllabus aims to foster an understanding of fundamental principles of Biology and cultivate awareness about the diversity of living organisms among young learners. The CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus is organized into five units for easy comprehension and learning.

Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms (23 Periods)

Chapter 1: The Living World
 What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.

Chapter 2: Biological Classification
Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.

Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom
Salient features and classification of animals non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category). (No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)

Unit-II Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants (22 Periods)

Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
Morphology and modifications: Internal Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
Anatomy and functions of different tissues.

Chapter 7: Structural Organisation in Animals
Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)

Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function (35 Periods)

Chapter 8: Cell-The Unit of Life
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.

Chapter 9: Biomolecules
Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

Unit-IV Plant Physiology (40 Periods)

Chapter 11: Transport in Plants
Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance
transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis.

Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition
Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity;  elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants
Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter 15: Plant – Growth and Development
Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

Unit-V Human Physiology (40 Periods)

Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption
Alimentary canal and digestive glands, the role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones;  Peristalsis, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Chapter 19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination
Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin-angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement
Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of the muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination
Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; Elementary structure and functions of eye and ear

Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration
Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease.

Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus for Practicals:

A: List of Experiments (60 Periods)

  1. Study and description of three locally available common flowering plants, one from each of the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Liliaceae (Poaceae, Asteraceae, or Brassicaceae can be substituted in case of particular geographical location) including dissection and display of floral whorls, anther, and ovary to show a number of chambers (floral formulae and floral diagrams). Types of root (Tap and adventitious); stem (herbaceous and woody); leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
  2. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
  3. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
  4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves).
  5. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
  6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
  7. Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats. Detection in suitable plant and animal materials.
  8. Separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography.
  9. Study of the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. 
  10. Test for the presence of urea in urine.
  11. Test for the presence of sugar in urine.
  12. Test for the presence of albumin in urine.
  13. Test for the presence of bile salts in urine.

B. Study/observation of the following (spotting)

  1. Study of the parts of a compound microscope.
  2. Study of the specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant, one dicotyledonous plant, and one lichen.
  3. Study of virtual specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Amoeba, Hydra, liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
  4. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells (palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous epithelium, muscle fibers and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.
  5. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
  6. Study of different modifications in roots, stems and leaves.
  7. Study and identification of different types of inflorescence (cymose and racemose).
  8. Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.
  9. Observation and comments on the experimental set up for showing: a) Anaerobic respiration, b) Phototropism, c) Effect of apical bud removal, d) Suction due to transpiration
  10. Study of human skeleton and different types of joints with the help of virtual images/models only.
  11. Study of external morphology of cockroach through virtual images/models.

Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students Class XI

Note: The ‘Evaluation schemes’ and ‘General Guidelines’ for visually impaired students as given for Class XII may be followed.

A. Items for Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus / equipments / animal and plant material / chemicals etc. for assessment in practicals(All experiments)

  • Plants of – Solanaceae- Brinjal, Petunia, any other 
  • Fabaceae- Rice, Wheat, any other
  • Liliaceae- Any of the Lilies
  • A compound microscope, seeds of monocot and dicot- maize and gram or any other Model of the Human skeleton to show – Ball and socket joints of girdles and limbs Rib cage Test tube, honeycomb, Mollusc shell, Models of Pigeon and Starfish, mushroom, Petri dish, succulents such as Aloe vera/kalenchoe, raisins, beaker, potatoes, scalpel, chromatography paper, chromatography chamber, alcohol, specimen/model of cockroach.

B. List of Practicals

  1. Study three locally available common flowering plants of the families – Solanaceae, fabaceae, and Liliaceae and identify the types of roots as Tap and Adventitious, Types of stems as Herbaceous or Woody, Types of leaves as Compound or Simple
  2. Study the parts of a compound microscope– eyepiece and objective lense, mirror, stage, coarse and fine adjustment knobs.
  3. Differentiate between monocot and dicot plants on the basis of venation patterns.
  4. Study the following parts of the human skeleton (Model): Ball and socket joints of thigh and shoulder Rib cage
  5. Study honey bee through the comb, snails through the shell, Starfish through the model, and Pigeons through the model.
  6. Identify the given specimen of a fungus – Mushroom.
  7. Study the adaptive features of xerophytic plants.
  8. Study the process of osmosis through endosmosis in raisins.
  9. Identify and relate the given experimental set up with aim of experiment: Paper Chromatography or Potato Osmometer.

FAQs on CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus 2024-25

Q1. What are the Different Units From the Class 11 Biology Syllabus 2024-25?
The CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus for 2024-25 typically includes units such as:
1. Structural organization in plants and animals
2. Diversity of living organisms
3. Cell structure and function
4. Plant physiology
5. Human physiology

Q2. What is Included in the Practical Part of the CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Biology?
The practical part of the CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus typically includes experiments, observations, and practical exercises related to the theoretical concepts covered in the CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus. This may involve activities such as microscopy, dissections, biochemical tests, and investigations to understand various biological processes and principles.

Q3. Is there a provision for visually impaired students during the practical examination?
Yes, there are provisions for visually impaired students during the practical examination. Accommodations may include providing assistive devices, modifying experiments or tasks to make them accessible, providing extra time, and offering support from trained personnel. Schools and examination boards often have specific guidelines and support systems in place to ensure that visually impaired students can participate fully and demonstrate their understanding in practical examinations.

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