Functions of Enzymes – Physiological and Industrial Functions

What are Enzymes: Functions of Enzymes

What are Enzymes 

  • Enzymes are substances that are essential for living organisms to carry out their life activities and are a type of protein that is synthesized within living organisms.
  • About 5,000 types of enzymes have been discovered, but each type of enzyme performs only one function.
  • Enzymes are essential substances for living things to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, excrete, etc
  • French chemist Anselme Payne was the first person to discover the enzyme in 1833. German physiologist Wilhelm Kuhne used the word enzyme for the first time in 1878.
  • Enzymes help the body break down large molecules (such as glucose) into smaller ones, allowing the body to use these molecules as energy.
  • DNA is present in every cell in your body. When cells divide, they also need to copy DNA. Enzymes help in copying DNA in this process.

Functions of Enzymes

  1. Enzymes play an extensive range of functions in living organisms.
  2. Enzymes take place in all biochemical processes such as metabolism, nutrition, and energy conversion of organisms. 
  3. All life processes are enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
  4. Enzymes break down complex molecules into simple molecules that can be easily absorbed by the human body.
  5. Energy production through metabolic processes is one of the important functions of enzymes. ATP synthase is the enzyme involved in the synthesis of energy.
  6. Enzymes maintain all the functions of the internal organs of the body.
  7. Enzymes help in cell repair, anti-inflammatory, and detoxification, improving immunity, and promoting blood circulation.
  8. Several enzymes are used for enzyme therapy to treat and diagnose diseases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, etc.
  9. Enzymes such as protein kinase help in signal transduction.
  10. Several enzymes are used in detergents, soap, and the leather industry.
  11. Enzymes like amylase and cellulase are used to improve the nutritional value of food.
  12. Many enzymes are used in the fermentation process.
  13. In the treatment of thrombophlebitis, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary infarction various enzymes like plasmin, streptokinase, urokinase, etc, are used.
  14. Enzymes Protease is used for protein breakdown, Lipase is used for lipid breakdown, Cellulase is used for cellulose breakdown, and Urease is used to hydrolyze urea to decompose it into carbon dioxide and ammonia
  15. Enzymes also take place in the movement, produce muscle contractions by catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP on myosin, and transport intracellular substances as part of the cytoskeleton. 
  16. ATPases enzymes located on the cell membrane that is involved in active transport as ion pumps.
Frequently Asked Questions on Functions of Enzymes

1. What are the types of enzymes and their function?
Answer: Enzymes are organic molecules that act as catalysts, that is, they speed up chemical reactions without being consumed or becoming part of the products of that reaction. They are usually proteins, although there is also RNA (ribonucleic acid), which has catalytic activity.
2. What is the function of enzymes in the digestive system?
Answer: Its function is the decomposition of the different nutrients into smaller molecules to be able to digest them correctly, preventing the formation of toxins and other substances that are harmful to the digestive tract.
3. What are the 6 types of enzymes?
Answer: Based on their specific catalytic action, enzymes are classified into 6 large groups or classes:
Class 1: Oxidoreductases.
Class 2: Transferases.
Class 3: Hydrolases.
Class 4: Lyases.
Class 5: Isomerases.
Class 6: Ligases.
4. Where are enzymes found?
Answer: They are produced inside the cells of the body and contribute to the elimination of waste substances and toxins, they are involved in processes of obtaining energy, the regeneration of cells, and the proper functioning of our immune system. – Dietary or food enzymes.
5. What are the useful enzymes in everyday life?
Answer: useful enzymes in our daily lives are the proteases, amylases, or lipases that are part of detergents. Proteases remove blood or grass stains; amylases from food residues such as sauces or purées and lipases from oil or make-up stains.
6. What are the 5 main functions of enzymes?
Answer: Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. Enzymes can break macronutrient molecules into smaller pieces, such as carbohydrates, fats, and other proteins. In this way, they facilitate the process of nutrient absorption. Amylase: acts on the digestion of carbohydrates. Protease: acts on the digestion of proteins. Lipase: acts on the digestion of fats.
7. What are the 4 functions of enzymes?
Answer: Enzymes catalyze all kinds of chemical reactions that are involved in growth, blood coagulation, healing, diseases, breathing, digestion, reproduction, and many other biological activities.
8. What are the three main functions of enzymes?
Answer: An enzyme is a kind of protein located within a cell, which catalyzes chemical reactions within the body that help sustain life. The function of enzymes is to carry out critical tasks. These involve muscle growth, removing toxins, and tearing down the molecules in food throughout digestion.
9. What are the 5 characteristics of enzymes?
Answer: Enzymes are highly specific, They are affected by substrate concentration, pH, and temperature They can be allosterically regulated by several means. Enzymes do not alter the reactions which they catalyze. Can function in either direction.

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