Batch Sterilization – Process, Advantages and Disadvantages

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What is Batch Sterilization: Process, Its Advantages, and Disadvantages

What is Sterilization?

  • Sterilization is the process of removing or killing unwanted microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, etc. from the fermentation medium.
  • It includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms, as well as bacterial spores and fungal spores.
  • Sterilization is a measure that uses strong physical and chemical factors to make all microorganisms inside and outside any object lose their ability to grow and reproduce forever. 
  • Sterilization is a necessary condition to obtain pure culture, and it is also a necessary technology in the field of the food industry and medicine.  
  • The types of sterilization are Batch sterilization, Continuous sterilization, and Filter sterilization.
Batch Sterilization process Advantages and Disadvantages

Batch Sterilization Definition:

Batch sterilization is a process where all the substrate and nutrients added to the vessel are allowed to reduce contaminant organisms present in the medium through the heating of a vessel. 

What is Batch Sterilization?

  • Batch sterilization is the reduction of contaminant organisms through the heating of a vessel. 
  • In batch sterilization entire fermentation medium is added to a vessel.
  • Batch sterilization is generally used to sterilize liquid media. 
  • The highest temperature for batch sterilization is 121°C.
  • The advantage of batch sterilization over continuous sterilization is that it has lower capital of equipment costs, high destruction rate, simple operation, etc.

Process of Batch Sterilization

  • Batch sterilization is the most commonly used and suitable method for liquid media sterilization.
  • Generally, the Batch Sterilization process is completed in three steps: heating, holding, and cooling period.
  • In the heating step, the steam is directly injected into the fermentation medium, or the vessel is heated electrically by heating jackets / Coils.
  • Now the temperature is increased until it reaches the sterilization temperature where it is held for a set period. During this period, most of the unwanted microorganisms are destroyed by the media and Bioreactor.
  • Finally, the system is cooled to bring the sterile culture media back to the desired temperature. 
  • The autoclave is an instrument that works on the principle of batch sterilization. It is used to kill germs that invade the fermentation media. 
  • The highest temperature, which appears to be feasible for batch sterilization is 121°C.
  • The advantage of batch sterilization it has lower capital of equipment costs. 
  • The disadvantages of batch sterilization are it wastes energy and can overcook the medium and it requires more expensive heat requirements than continuous sterilization.
  • The long exposure of batch sterilization may lead to the degradation of the medium. 
  • The medium may lose all its nutritional quality. 
  • The heat-labile components like proteins and vitamins get degraded due to overheating.
  • It will leave some bacteria a chance to survive, and once the bacteria have formed spores (a kind of dormant body), it is difficult to kill them.
Advantages of Batch Sterilization:
  • Batch sterilization is the most common and widely used technique to sterilize the fermentation medium.
  • Batch sterilization is more reliable to scale up the fermentation process. 
  • It has a simple operation. 
  • No additional materials are required to add to the fermentation media.
  • Batch sterilization can reduce thermal damage to the fermentation medium significantly.
  • Batch sterilization achieves high levels of cell destruction.
  • The other advantages of batch sterilization are strong continuity, rapid sterilization and disinfection, and less damage to the nutrients in the fermentation medium. 
Disadvantages of batch Sterilization:
  • Batch sterilization utilizes more expensive heat.
  • Best results only occur in well-mixed closed vessels. 
  • It is suitable for manual operation.
Frequently Asked Questions on Sterilization:

1. What is sterilization in simple words?
Answer: Sterilization is the complete destruction of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and prions, and their spores from an object are known as sterilization. Generally, sterilization is carried out by Autoclave, thermal, chemical, radiation, and filtration methods.
2. What is sterilization in medicine?
Answer: Sterilization of medical devices is the removal or killing of all types of microorganisms on a medical instrument with the help of physical or chemical influences.
3. What is the meaning of sterilization?
Answer: The essence of sterilization is the destruction of any microorganisms. 
4. What are the stages of sterilization?
Answer: The sterilization process consists of three stages and includes: disinfection, pre-sterilization treatment, and actual sterilization
5. What are the advantages of continuous sterilization?
Answer: Continuous sterilization results in a perfect process that offers many advantages over discontinuous processes; time, steam, electricity, and cooling water are saved.
6. What is the best sterilization method?
Answer: Sterilization by steam (moist heat) under pressure is applied in an autoclave. It is undoubtedly the most effective method, in fact, its effectiveness is 100%.

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