Functions of Mitochondria

Functions of Mitochondria

Functions of Mitochondria

Mitochondria are a type of organelles located in cells, which are responsible for supplying most of the energy needed in cellular activity or respiration. Mitochondria function as power plants in the cell, synthesizing ATP with metabolic fuels, such as: glucose, acid acids, and amino acids.

The mitochondria is made up of an outer membrane, which has a permeable function with metabolite ions and several of the polypeptides. This is made possible because it contains proteins, which form pores, which are called porins or VDAC, which refers to the voltage-dependent anion channel; These allow the passage of molecules up to 10 kDa in mass, with a diameter of at least 2nm.

Read : Cell Structure & Functions

The main function of the mitochondria is based on the oxidation of the metabolites and the obtaining of Adenosin Triphosphate, which occurs through oxidative phosphorylation, which depends on the chain that carries electrons. The Adenosine Triphosphate produced by the mitochondria represents a very high percentage compared to that synthesized by the cell.

The mitochondria is also in charge of storing various substances, such as: the remaining ions, water, and virus and protein particles. Mainly the mitochondria is responsible for producing energy, since the simple molecules of nutrition are sent to it for processing and that charged molecules arise, which combine with oxygen and produce ATP.

Read : Mitochondria

It is also responsible for maintaining an ideal concentration of calcium ions in the cell, within its compartments. On the other hand, the mitochondria helps create parts of the blood components and hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen.

The mitochondria located in the liver cells contain enzymes with the ability to detoxify ammonia. It also participates in the process of apoptosis or what is known as programmed cell death, where it plays a fundamental role, since abnormal cell death occurs when the mitochondria does not work correctly, which affects the organ where it is located.

Read : Animal cell structure function

What are the characteristics of mitochondria?

• They measure between 0.5 and 1 micrometer in diameter and reach up to 7 micrometers in length. Their number varies according to how much energy the cell needs.

• Mitochondria are surrounded by two membranes, which are differentiated by their functions and the activities carried out by enzymes, and are also separated into: the cytosol, the intermembrane space and the mitochondrial matrix.

Read : Eukaryotic cell structure and functions

• The inner membrane of the mitochondria is composed of 80% proteins, it also does not contain pores and is quite selective, it has many complexes of enzymes and systems to transport through the membrane, which are involved in the translocation of the molecules.

• The intermembrane space is made up of a liquid similar to hyaloplasm, and also contains a large number of protons, which are generated by pumping enzyme complexes into the respiratory chain.

Read : RNA Structure & Functions

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