MCQ on Translation (Protein Synthesis)

Multiple Choice Questions on Translation

What is Translation?

  • The translation is the formation of Proteins.
  • Translation takes place in the cytoplasm and consists of reading the mRNA. 
  • The process involves three steps initiation, elongation, and termination.
  • Twenty different types of amino acids are responsible for the formation of proteins.
  • These twenty types of amino acids are encoded by different codons. These codons are triplets of nitrogenous bases that will form our genetic code. 
  • There are 64 different triplets. Of these 64, 61 correspond to the twenty amino acids. The other three function as synthesis termination signals also called stop codons.
  • The process of protein synthesis involves three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). 
  • The mRNA has a fundamental role, as it contains the information determined by the DNA, which must be translated. 
  • The rRNA acts in the formation of the ribosome together with proteins. The ribosome is where synthesis takes place. 
  • The tRNA is responsible for carrying the amino acids that will form the new protein.
  • Translation begins (initiation step) when the smaller subunit of a ribosome and a specific tRNA is associated with an mRNA. 
  • The subunit then slides over the molecule until it encounters an initiation codon (AUG). 
  • Each ribosome has two sites where tRNAs are attached. The P site, where the tRNA releases the amino acid it is transporting and where the polypeptide being formed is located, and the A site, where the tRNA that carries the next amino acid in the polypeptide chain is located. 
  • The ribosome slides over the mRNA and different amino acids are added to the polypeptide chain (elongation step).
  • When the ribosome arrives at a stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA), a protein called a releasing factor binds and everyone involved in synthesis separates. The polypeptide chain is then released.
  • It is worth noting that the same mRNA can be translated simultaneously by several ribosomes they are called polysomes.

Translation MCQ with Answers Pdf

1. What is a translation in biology?

A. The process of production of functional proteins by reading the genetic information from messenger RNAs (mRNA) is referred to as translation.

B. The process of production of m-RNA is referred to as translation.

C. The process of production of DNA is referred to as translation.

D. None of these 

Answer: A

2. What is polysome____

A. active site for synthesis of lipids

B. active site for synthesis of proteins

C. active site for synthesis of DNA

D. all of these

Answer: B

3. In the process of gene-controlled protein synthesis, the main sites of transcription and translation are, in order_______

A. Cytoplasm and cytoplasm

B. The nucleus and cytoplasm

C. Cytoplasm and nucleus

D. nucleus and nucleus

Answer: B

4. How many codons are there for 20 amino acids?

A. 20 kinds

B. 16 kinds

C. 64 kinds 

D. 4 kinds

Answer: 3

5. Which is the energy-rich molecule required for initiation of translation?

A. One molecule of GTP

B. One molecule of ATP

C. Two molecules of GTP

D. Two molecules of ATP

Answer: A

6. What are codons in genetics_______

A. 3 adjacent bases on a DNA strand

B. 3 adjacent bases in mRNA that determine an amino acid

C. 3 bases at one end of the tRNA

D. 3 adjacent base pairs on a DNA molecule

Answer: B

7. A protein consists of 65 amino acids, and the number of bases in the gene that controls the synthesis of the protein is at least______

A. 390

B. 195

C. 65

D. 260

Answer: A

8. In protein synthesis, translocation is initiated with the movement of__________

A. tRNA from P-site to the A-site

B. dipeptidyl tRNA from A-site to P-site

C. tRNA from A-site to P-site

D. tRNA from P-site to E-site

Answer: B

9. The sequence of three bases at one end of a transfer RNA is GCU, and the base sequence to the template of the codon on the paired messenger RNA is________





Answer: C

10. In an individual animal, almost all somatic cells contain the same genes, but there are cell-to-cell differences in function because they synthesize different________

A. transfer RNA

B. messenger RNA

C. Nucleotides

D. Ribosome

Answer: B

11. Which of the following inhibits the initiation step of translation_________

A. ricin

B. tetracycline

C. streptomycin

D. cyclohexylamine

Answer: C

12. Which of the statements about protein synthesis is true_______

A. An amino acid corresponds to only one codon

B. Each amino acid corresponds to a tRNA

C. Both are synthesized in ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum

D. Amino acids are determined by mRNA codons

Answer: D

13. Statement about protein synthesis that is incorrect______

A. Stop codons do not encode amino acids

B. Each tRNA transports only one amino acid

C. The anticodon of tRNA carries the genetic information of the amino acid sequence

D. Ribosomes can move on mRNA

Answer: C

14. Which of the following statements about DNA replication, transcription and translation is true_______

A. All three processes are carried out in all living cells

B. All three processes take place in the cytoplasm

C. All three processes have a base complementary pairing process, but the way of base pairing is not exactly the same

D. The template for replication and transcription is exactly the same, and not the same as the template for translation

Answer: C

15. Which of the following is considered to be the start codon_____





Answer: D

16. The process of islet B cells synthesizing and secreting insulin involves

① DNA self-replication 

② Messenger RNA synthesis 

③ Polypeptide synthesis according to the sequence of codons on messenger RNA 

④ Ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and other organelles 

⑤ Cellular respiration and ATP

A. ①②③④

B. ①③④⑤

C. ②③④⑤

D. ②③④

Answer: C

17. Which statement is true about genes controlling protein synthesis?

A. Transcription and translation both take place in the nucleus

B. The raw materials for transcription and translation are deoxynucleotides and amino acids, respectively

C. The templates for transcription and translation are a strand of DNA and RNA, respectively

D. One codon determines only one amino acid, and one amino acid is transported by only one tRNA

Answer: C

18. Protein synthesis is nothing but_______

A. duplicating required DNA for the synthesis of proteins

B. formation of amino acids from mRNA

C. formation of mRNA from DNA template

Deformation of amino acids from DNA template directly

Answer: 2

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