Science Textbook Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 2 – Health and Diseases

Important points to remember :

  1. Health  is a state  of complete  physical,  mental and  social  well-beingness  and  not  merely  the absence of any disease. 
  2. Condition of disturbances in physiological or psychological processes of body is called as disease. 
  3. Each disease has its own specific symptoms. Diseases spread through contaminated air, water, food or vectors (insects and other animals) are called as infectious diseases. 
  4. Malaria  is  spread  by female  Anopheles  while elephantiasis  by female Culex. Anopheles and Aedes  grow in  clean  water while Culex sewage water. 
  5. AIDS (Acquired Immuno   Deficiency Syndrome) : This disease is  caused  by HIV (Human  Immunodeficiency  Virus).  In  this disease, victim suffer from various diseases due to progressive weakening  of natural  immunity.  
  6. Diagnosis of AIDS cannot  be confirmed  without  tests  in  medical  laboratories.  ELISA  test  is used for its proper diagnosis. 
  7. Controlled diet helps to prevent some types of cancers. Physical exercise  along with modern treatment  is more beneficial to cure the cancer. 
  8. 7th  April – World Health Day   
  9. 29th  September – World Heart day      
  10. 14th  June – World Blood Donation Day 
  11. 14th  November – World Diabetes Day

Question 1: Distinguish between- Infections and non infections diseases.
 Answer :
1. Infectious disease can be passed from one person to another. While

non-infectious diseases
cannot  passed from one person to another.

2. Infectious disease is caused by a pathogen.

non-infectious diseases is caused due to internal reasons like metabolic or genetic reasons.

3. Infectious disease are classified as communicable disease.

While non infectious diseases are classified as non communicable disease.

4. Examples of infectious diseases : diarrhoea, cholera, tuberculosis

Examples of non infectious diseases : diabetes, hypertension, cancer

Question 2: Identity the odd term.
A. Malaria, hepatitis, elephantiasis, dengue
Answer: Hepatitis is the odd one out because it is a type of viral infection while the rest of three are spread through the bite of mosquitoes.

B. Plague, AIDS, cholera, T.B. 
Answer : AIDS is the odd one out because it is a viral disease while the rest of them are bacterial diseases.

Question 3: Answer in one to two sentences.
A. Which are various media of spreading the infectious diseases ?
Answer : Infectious diseases can spread through air, water, blood to blood contact and animal vectors.

B. Give the names of five non-infections diseases other than given in the lesson.
Answer : Non infectious diseases- arthiritis, cataract, osteoprosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzeimer’s.

C. Which are the main reasons of diabetes and heart diseases ?
Answer : Reasons of heart diseases include smoking, alcoholism, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, lack of physical exercise, mental stress, anxiety and improper diet. Reasons of diabetes include obesity, lack of physical exercise, mental stress, improper diet and hereditary.

Question 4: What can be achieved / can be prevented ?

A. Drinking boiled and filtered water
Answer : When it used the boiled water, the impurities are removed complete and filter water some of the dust alone get removed from the water. So you can go with boiled water to remove dust and impurities to drink a health water. By drinking boiled and filtered water, The warmth relives the congestion in the nasal cavity.

B. Avoiding smoking and alcoholism.
Answer : effects of smoking and drinking, avoiding triggers which leads to such issues, setting goals of quitting it gradually, Preparing self for change by getting rid of addictive substances from house and avoid the places where people drink or smoke are some of the ways to prevent smoking and drinking.

C. Regular balanced diet and exercise.
Answer : Eating a healthy balanced diet accompanied by regular exercise is essential in maintaining physical and mental health and well-being. Not only are these effective in preventing excess weight gain or in maintaining weight loss, but healthier lifestyles are also associated with improved sleep and mood.

D. Proper checking of blood before blood donation.
Answer : Eat a healthy meal before yourdonation. Avoid fatty foods, before donating. Tests for infections done on all donated blood can be affected by fats that appear in your blood for several hours after eating fatty foods. *second is we should check the type of the blood ex;A+,B+,O+ etc.

Question 5: Read the passage and answer the questions.
Master ‘X’ is a 3 year old child. He is toiler with his family in a slum. Public toilet is present near his house. His father is drunkard. His mother does not know the importance of balanced diet.

A. Master ‘X’ can suffer from which different possible diseases in above conditions ?
Answer : Since, the house of master X is near the toilet and he lives in a slum area, the chances are that there is less cleaniliness in that area. There are chances that he may suffer from diseases like salmonellosis, shigellosis, diarrhoea, trachoma, gastroenteritis, giardiasis, tapeworm infection and threadworm infection.

B. How will you help him and hsi family in this situation ?
Answer : In this case, the famliy needs to be made aware about cleanliness in and around their houses. There is a need to explain them the importance of balanced diet for them and their child. Since, the father is a drukyard, he needs counselling and treatment to get rid of the habit of alcoholism.

C. Which disease can occur to the father o master ‘X’ ?
Answer : The father of master X is a drunkyard which means he might suffer from diseases such as heart diseases, liver cirrhosis, ulcers and gastrointestinal ptoblems, brain damage etc.

Question 6: Give the preventive measures of following diseases.
A. Dengue
Answer :

  1. Wear long-sleeve shirts and long pants.
  2. Treat clothes with repellents like permethrin.
  3. Use EPA-registered mosquito repellent like DEET.
  4. Consider using mosquito netting if you will be in an areas with many mosquitoes.
  5. Make sure windows and doors screens are closed to avoid allowing mosquitoes into inclosed spaces.
  6. Avoid areas with standing water.

B. Cancer
Answer : Consider these cancer-prevention tips.

  1. Don’t use tobacco. Using any type of tobacco puts you on a collision course with cancer.
  2. Eat a healthy diet. 
  3. Maintain a healthy weight and be physically active. 
  4. Protect yourself from the sun.
  5. Get vaccinated. 
  6. Avoid risky behaviors.
  7. Get regular medical care.

Answer : Prevention

  1. Use treatment as prevention (TasP).
  2. Use post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) if you’ve been exposed to HIV.
  3. Use a new condom every time you have sex.
  4. Consider preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
  5. Tell your sexual partners if you have HIV
  6. Use a clean needle.
  7. If you’re pregnant, get medical care right away.

Question 7.  Explain the importance. 
a. Balanced diet. 
Answer : A well-balanced diet provides important vitamins, minerals, and nutrients to keep the body and mind strong and healthy. Eating well can also help ward off numerous diseases and health complications, as well as help maintain a healthy body weight, provide energy, allow better sleep, and improve brain function.

b. Physical exercise / Yogasanas.
Answer : Physical activity or exercise can improve your health and reduce the risk of developing several diseases like type 2 diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity and exercise can have immediate and long-term health benefits. Most importantly, regular activity can improve your quality of life.

Question 8: Make a list.
A.Viral Disease: 
 Answer :  Measels, Mumps, Swine flu, Chicken pox

B. Bacterial Disease : 
Answer : Tuberculosis, Diptheria, Tetanus, Cholera, Typhoid

C. Disease spread through Insects : 
 Answer : Dengue, Malaria, Plague

D. Hereditary disease : 
Answer : Diabetes, Hypertension, Cancer

Question 9: Write the information on modern diagnostics and treatments of cancer.
Answer : Cancer: Cancer is a non-infectious, deadly disease that results in the uncontrolled growth of the tumor cells or cancer cells. About 20% of the world’s total population suffer from cancer.

There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you have will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. You may also have immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy.

#can you tell 
1. What do we mean by pathogen? 
Answer : Pathos is the Greek word for disease and -genes means “born of.” So, a pathogen is something that causes disease, like a virus like the rhinovirus, which causes the common cold.

2. What do we mean by infectious diseases?
Answer : Those diseases which can spread from one to another is called infectious disease.

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