NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 – Reproductive Health
Hello students today we are going to discuss about NCERT Solutions for Class 12 biology chapter 4 Reproductive health textbook solutions In this article we collected all the questions and answers of NCERT Biology Class 12 Chapter 4 Reproductive health with simple answers.
So before starting the questions and answers of NCERT solutions Class 12 Biology chapter 4 solutions just rewise it with the important points to remember ……
Important points to Remember
- Reproductive health refers to a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural and social. Our nation was the first nation in the world to initiate various action plans at national level towards attaining a reproductively healthy society.
- Counselling and creating awareness among people about reproductive organs, adolescence and associated changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including AIDS, etc., is the primary step towards reproductive health.
- Providing medical facilities and care to the problems like menstrual irregularities, pregnancy related aspects, delivery, medical termination of pregnancy, STIs, birth control, infertility, post natal child and maternal management is another important aspect of the Reproductive and Child Health Care programmes.
- MTP is generally performed to get rid of unwanted pregnancy due to rapes, casual relationship, etc., as also in cases when the continuation of pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal to either the mother, or the foetus or both.
- Infections or diseases transmitted through sexual intercourse are called Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs). Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases (PIDs), still birth, infertility are some of the complications of them. Early detection facilitate better cure of these diseases. Avoiding sexual intercourse with unknown/multiple partners, use of condoms during coitus are some of the simple precautions to avoid contractins STIs.
- Inability to conceive or produce children even after 2 years of unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility. Various methods are now available to help such couples.
- In Vitro fertilisation followed by transfer of embryo into the female genital tract is one such method and is commonly known as the ‘Test Tube Baby’ Programme.
1. What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
Answer : Significance of reproductive health in a society:
- Reproductive Health prevents the spread of various sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
- Proper medication and checkups will help in the production of healthy children.
- Better sex education and awareness help in maintaining the population and prevent the population explosion.
- Unwanted pregnancies are avoided.
The reproductive health in India has improved tremendously over the past 50 years. The areas in which reproductive health has improved includes,
- Prevention of unwanted pregnancies by using contraceptives have shown the development of health in women.
- Awareness of advantages of small families by using contraceptives has led to economic growth of the family.
2. Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
- Counselling and creating awareness among people, especially the youth, about various aspects of reproductive health, such as sexually transmitted diseases, available contraceptive methods, case of pregnant mothers, adolescence, etc.
- Providing support and facilities such as medical assistance to people during pregnancy, STDs, abortions, contraceptives, infertility, etc. for building a reproductively healthy society
- Maintaining proper hygiene should be made understood to people.
3. Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Answer : Lack of knowledge in sex can increase the number of unwanted pregnancies. Many high school and college students face unwanted pregnancies because they are not taught how to make healthy sex decisions. Sex education is very necessary to be taught in schools because knowledge in sex can be used for a lifetime.
Sex education is necessary in schools because:
- It provides correct information about of reproductive health, related organs, about adolescence and sexually transmitted diseases.
- As well as it creates awareness to protect people from the misconceptions about various sex related issues.
- The young individual or adolescents are more susceptible in acquiring various sexually transmitted diseases. Hence, providing information to them at the right time would help them to lead a reproductively healthy life.
4. Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in
the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Answer : Yes, the reproductive health has tremendously improved in India in the last 50 years. The areas of improvement are as follows:
- massive child immunisation meaning is that the immunisation protects your child against three diseases: Measles, Mumps and Rubella. (Rubella is also known as German measles).
- Use of contraceptive, which has resulted in a decrease in the rate of sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies.
- Maternal and infant mortality rate, which has been decreased drastically due to better post natal care.
- Family planning, which has motivated people to have smaller families which includes in Take the Cue of Timely Conception, Usage of Condoms & Right Contraceptives to Plan.
5. What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
Answer : Population explosion refers to the rapid and dramatic rise in world population that has occurred over the last few hundred years. There is an increase in the population every day, leading to population explosion. Two of the major reasons are as follows:
- Increase in the birth rate and
- the longevity Decrease in the death rate or we can say
- A rapid decline in death rate, maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) as well as an increase in number of people in reproducible age are probable reasons for this.
If the population increased it can lead to an
absolute scarcity of even the basic requirements, i.e., food, shelter an clothing, in spite of significant progress made in those areas. Therefore, the government was forced to take up serious measures to check this population growth rate.
6. Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Answer : Yes, the use of contraceptives is absolutely justified.
- Because Contraceptive use reduces the need for abortion by preventing unwanted pregnancies.
- It therefore reduces cases of unsafe abortion, one of the leading causes of maternal death worldwide.
- Contraception allows them to put off having children until their bodies are fully able to support a pregnancy.
- It can also prevent pregnancy for older women who face pregnancy-related risks.
- Contraceptive use slows population growth. This is important because overpopulation puts pressure on the environment, the economy and services such as education and health.
7. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?
- Removal of gonads is a surgerical method of sterilization. Surgical intervention blocks gamete transport and thereby prevent conception.
- Sterilisation procedure in the male is called ‘vasectomy’ and that in the female, ‘tubectomy’.
- In vasectomy, a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum.
- whereas in tubectomy, a small part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up through a small incision in the abdomen or through vagina.
- These techniques are highly effective but their reversibility is very poor.
- No doubt, the widespread use of these methods have a significant role in checking uncontrolled growth of population. However, their possible ill-effects like nausea, abdominal pain, breakthrough bleeding, irregular menstrual bleeding or even breast cancer, though not very significant, should not be totally ignored.
8. Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Amniocentesis is a procedure in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus for testing or treatment. Amniotic fluid is the fluid that surrounds and protects a baby during pregnancy. This fluid contains fetal cells and various proteins.
It is done for verious resons like Genetic testing, Fetal lung testing, Diagnosis of fetal infection, Treatment and Paternity testing.
Unfortunately these technique misused and Statutory ban on amniocentesis for
sex-determination to legally check increasing menace of female foeticides,
massive child immunisation, etc.
9. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Infertility is the inability of a couple to produce a baby even after unprotected intercourse. It might be due to abnormalities present in either male or female, or might be even both the partners.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a group of different methods used to help infertile couples. ART works by removing eggs from a woman’s body. The eggs are then mixed with sperm to make embryos. The embryos are then put back in the woman’s body.
The techniques used to assist infertile couples to have children are as follows.
Test Tube Baby / In vitro Fertilization : In vitro fertilisation (IVF–fertilisation outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body) followed by embryo transfer (ET) is one of such methods. In this method, popularly known as test tube
baby programme, ova from the wife/donor (female) and sperms from then husband/donor (male) are collected and are induced to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory
GIFT : Transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube
(GIFT – gamete intra fallopian transfer) of another female who cannot
produce one, but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation and
further development is another method attempted.
3. Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) : is another specialised procedure to form an embryo in the laboratory in which a sperm is directly injected into the ovum.
4. Artificial Insemination : Infertility cases either due to inability of the male partner to inseminate the female or due to very low sperm counts in the ejaculates, could be
corrected by artificial insemination (AI) technique. In this technique, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus (IUI – intra-uterine insemination) of the female.
ART procedures sometimes involve the use of donor eggs (eggs from another woman), donor sperm, or previously frozen embryos. Donor eggs are sometimes used for women who can not produce eggs. Also, donor eggs or donor sperm is sometimes used when the woman or man has a genetic disease that can be passed on to the baby.
10. What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?
Answer : Infections or diseases which are transmitted through sexual intercourse
are collectively called sexually transmitted infections (STI) or venereal diseases (VD) or reproductive tract infections (RTI). Gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B and of course, the most discussed infection in the recent years, HIV leading to AIDS are some of the common STIs.
STIs are a major threat to a healthy society.
Therefore, prevention or early detection and cure of these diseases are given prime consideration under the reproductive health-care programmes. Though all persons are vulnerable to these infections, their incidences are reported to be very high among persons in the age group
of 15-24 years – the age group to which you also belong. There is no reason to panic because prevention is possible. One could be free of these infections by following the simple principles given below:
- Avoid sex with unknown partners/multiple partners.
- Always try to use condoms during coitus..
- In case of doubt, one should go to a qualified doctor for early detection and get complete treatment if diagnosed with infection.
11. State True/False with explanation
a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
Answer : True, Sometimes, there can be some medical complications for the foetus or the expectant mother. This may result in spontaneous abortion.
b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
Answer : False, Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and can be due to abnormalities in either the male or the female partner.
c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
Answer : False, Lactational amenorrhea or complete lactation can help as a natural method of contraception. But it is limited until the completion of lactational period only which is until six months after parturition.
d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)
Answer : True
12. Correct the following statements :
a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
Answer: Surgical methods prevent physical contact between male and female gametes.
b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
Answer: Some STDs are incurable, e.g. herpes, hepatitis-B and AIDS.
c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
Answer : Rural women are least aware about oral contraceptives and hence these not popular among rural women.
d) In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
Answer: In ET techniques, embryo is transferred into fallopian tube (up to 8 blastomeres), and into uterus (more than 8 blastomeres).