Cell biology Questions and Answers Download Pdf

Cell Biology Questions and Answers

Cytology or Cell Biology is the branch of Biology that studies cells. The word cell biology derives from the Greek ketos, cell, and logos, study. Cytology focuses on the study of cells, covering their structure and metabolism. The birth of cytology and the invention of the microscope are related facts. In 1663, Robert Hooke cut a piece of cork and observed it under a microscope. He noticed that there were compartments, which he called cells. Here in this article, we discussed top cell biology questions and answers. 

 

Cell biology questions and answers

 

 

Cell Biology Questions and Answers Pdf

1. What does the cell theory say and who proposed it?

Answer: The Cell Theory is essential to understand the Cell. Cell theory was proposed by Matthias Schleiden (1804-1881) and Theodor Schwann (1810-1882). Schleiden and Schwann’s cell theory points out a common feature for all living things: All living things are composed of cells. All living things originate from cells. The cells do not arise spontaneously but come from previous ones. Absolutely all vital functions revolve around cells or their immediate contact. The cell is the physiological unit of life.

 

2. What is a cell

Answer: A cell is the smallest (elementary) unit of structure, functioning, and development of living organisms, capable of self-reproduction. The cells of all living organisms are similar in composition, structure, and life processes. Cells are formed by dividing the original parent cell.

 

3. What types of microscopes do you know?

Answer: Optical & electronic Microscope.

 

4. Which have a nuclear membrane and which do not? Give examples.

Answer: In eukaryotes (have a nuclear membrane eg animals, plants, protozoa ) and prokaryotes (eg bacteria).

 

5. What are the main parts of a eukaryotic cell?

Answer: All Cell organelles like Nucleus, cytoplasm & plasma membrane 

 

6. What does the plasma membrane consist of?

Answer: It consists of proteins and lipids 

 

7. What is the role of the plasma membrane?

Answer: It surrounds, separates, and individualizes the cell from its environment. Controls the substances that enter and leave it.

 

8. What is the role of the nucleus?  

Answer: The nucleus is the “control center” of the cell. There is the genetic material (DNA) in which the information about all the characteristics of the cell (structural and functional) is recorded.

 

9. What is the significance of nuclear membranes?

Answer: The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane (nuclear) with openings (pores), through which molecules are exchanged between the nucleus and the rest of the cell. 

 

10. What is cytoplasm?

Answer: The space between the plasma membrane and the nucleus is occupied by the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, there are various organelles, which perform the various functions of the cell.

 

11. Which organelles are found in the cytoplasm?

Answer: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplasts

 

12. What types of endoplasmic reticulum do you know and what is the main difference between them?

Answer: In the electron microscope we distinguish two forms of endoplasmic reticulum, the Rough and smooth. On the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, there are small formations, the ribosomes, which give it a rough (rough) appearance. The ribosomes are composed of proteins and RNA. In them the synthesis of proteins takes place. Ribosomes are also present freely in the cytoplasm. The continuation of the coarse is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, in which there are no ribosomes. Its function is related to the synthesis of lipids and the storage of various proteins. 

 

13. Where are ribosomes located, what is their role and what do they consist of?

Answer: They are located on the surface of the coarse endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytoplasm. The ribosomes are composed of proteins and RNA. In them the synthesis of proteins takes place. 

 

14. What is the role of the Golgi complex?

Answer: This Golgi complex consists of a set of parallel flattened sacs in which the proteins, after their synthesis, are modified and take their final form. 

 

15. What is the role of lysosomes?

Answer: They contain active enzymes, which contribute to the breakdown of substances, e.g. proteins, but also microorganisms, such as, for example, the various microbes that infect our body. 

 

16. What is the role of vacuoles?

Answer: They are stores of nutrients for the plant cell and occupy most of it.

 

17. When are digestive cavities formed?

Answer: They are formed when food particles or microorganisms enter the animal cell which will then be used or destroyed.

 

18. What is the role of the mitochondria?

Answer: Their role is to provide energy, which is necessary for cell functions. The necessary energy is released by the breakdown of chemicals that occurs during cellular respiration. This process is done with the help of special enzymes that are present inside the mitochondria.

 

19. What is cellular respiration and where does it occur in a eukaryotic cell?

Answer: It is the process by which energy is released that is necessary for cell functions to break down chemical compounds. This process is done with the help of special enzymes that are present inside the mitochondria. 

 

20. Do all cells have the same number of mitochondria?

Answer: The number of mitochondria varies depending on the energy needs of the cell. Thus, human muscle cells have many mitochondria, while other cells have fewer cells.

 

21. Which cells contain chloroplasts? What is the role of the chloroplast?

Answer: Plant cells containing chlorophyll gemstone. Photosynthesis takes place in these organelles, in which simple inorganic molecules (eg carbon dioxide and water) are converted to organic matter (eg glucose) by solar energy. At the same time, oxygen is released. Chloroplasts contain special enzymes and other molecules, such as chlorophyll, that are necessary for photosynthesis. Although chloroplasts are found only in photosynthetic cells, the organic molecules and oxygen they produce are essential for meeting the energy needs and sustaining the life of all Earth organisms.

 

22. What is photosynthesis and where does it take place in a eukaryotic cell?

Answer: During photosynthesis, simple inorganic molecules (eg carbon dioxide and water) are converted to organic matter (eg glucose) by solar energy. At the same time, oxygen is released. Chloroplasts contain special enzymes and other molecules, such as chlorophyll, that are necessary for photosynthesis.

 

23. What are the differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts?

Answer: The mitochondrial limits epi tripping and animal and plant cells, with hile chloroplasts alone in the plant. In mitochondria, cell respiration takes place, while in chloroplasts photosynthesis takes place.

 

24. What kind of cavities are found in animal cells and what kind in plants? 

Answer: Digestive vacuums are opium in animals and juices in plants.

 

25. What is the cell wall, what is its role and what does it consist of? 

Answer: This wall surrounds the plasma membrane of plant cells. It has mainly a supporting role. It is solid, durable, and consists of polysaccharides, the main of which is cellulose.

 

28. How do bacteria cope with adverse conditions?

Answer: Some bacteria, when found in adverse environmental conditions (eg very high or very low temperatures), dehydrate and turn into resistant forms called endospores. When conditions become favorable again, a bacterium will emerge from each endospore. 

 

29. How do unicellular organisms move?

Answer: eyelashes, flagella, cilia.

 

30. Which organisms perform photosynthesis?

Answer: Plants, algae, cyanobacteria

 

31. How are organisms differentiated according to the number of their cells? Give examples. 

Answer: Monocytes e.g. bacterium, amoeba & multi cells e.g. man, poppy 

 

32. What are the differences between unicellular and multicellular organisms? 

Answer: Unicellular organisms consist of a cell, which performs all the functions required for the growth and reproduction of the organism. Multicellular organisms are made up of many different eukaryotic cells. These cells show similarities but also differences in their structure and function. At the same time, however, they cooperate, with the result that the whole organism can function and survive.

 

33. Are the cells of a multicellular organism the same? If not, what is the difference?

Answer: No, they differ in structure & function.

 

34. Can a cell of a multicellular organism live independently of the rest of the organism? If not, why not? 

Answer: No, the cells of a multicellular organism cooperate, so that the whole organism can function and survive.

 

35. What are the main structural similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms? Give examples. 

Answer: Similarities: Both have cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and ribosomes.

Differences: Eukaryotic organisms (eg humans, animals, poppies, protozoa, fungi) are composed of cells that contain a nucleus, while cells of prokaryotic organisms (eg bacteria, cyanobacteria) do not have a nucleus. In addition, in the cells of eukaryotic organisms, there are organelles (i.e. mitochondria, etc.) while in prokaryotes there are not.

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