Solutions for Class 10 Science Part II Chapter 7 – Introduction to microbiology Exercise

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Introduction to microbiology chapter 7 Textbook Solutions:

Students can refer to the following introduction to microbiology chapter 7 textbook solutions for class 10 Science provided below based on the latest curriculum and examination pattern issued by the Maharashtra state board. Our subject experts have prepared these questions and answers for class 10 students. which covers all topics from your textbook so that students can assess themselves on all important topics and thoroughly prepare for their board exams.

We have provided below Introduction to microbiology chapter 7 class 10 notes Science with answers which will help the students to go through the entire syllabus and practice textbook questions and answers provided here with solutions. You can download it in Pdf Format and score high in your board exam you should go through all Introduction to microbiology chapter 7 Class 10 solutions provided below so that you can get more marks in your exams.


Important Points to Remember about Introduction to Microbiology

  1. Applied MicrobiologyBranch of biology in which the study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes, proteins, applied genetics, molecular biology, etc. is performed; is called applied microbiology.
  2. Natural gases such as biogas, ethane, and methane can be obtained from the microbial process.
  3. bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis can destroy pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB).
  4. Probiotic products are available in various forms like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut (pickle of cabbage), dark chocolate, miso soup, pickles, oils, corn syrup, artificial sweeteners
  5. Mutant strains are formed by alterations of nucleotides in the DNA of microorganisms to suit the needs of the industry.
  6. Mutant strains are used for producing virus-resistant bacterial strains are used in the Dairy industry (milk products) to avoid unwanted bacteria and viruses attacking and remembering the original ones.
  7. Now a day, instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in the chemical industry. These enzymes are active at low temperatures, pH, and pressure; due to which energy is saved, and erosion-proof instruments are also not necessary. 


1. Rewrite the following statements using correct of the options and explain the completed statements.
(gluconic acid, coagulation, amino acid, acetic acid, clostridium, lactobacilli)
 
a. Process of — — — — of milk proteins occurs due to lactic acid.
Answer: aProcess of coagulation of milk proteins occurs due to lactic acid.
 
b. Harmful bacteria in like — — — in the intestine are destroyed due to probiotics.
Answer: bHarmful bacteria like clostridium in the intestine are destroyed due to probiotics.
 
c. Chemically, vinegar is — — –.
Answer: c. Chemically, vinegar is Acetic acid 
 
d. Salts which can be used as a supplement of calcium and iron are 
obtained from 
Answer: d. Salts that can be used as supplements of calcium and iron are obtained from gluconic acid

2.  Match the pairs.

‘A’ group‘B’ group
a. Xylitol1. Pigment
b. Citric acid2. To impart sweetness
c. Lycopene3. Microbial restrictor
d. Nycin4. Protein-binding emulsifier
5. To impart acidity

Answer:

‘A’ group‘B’ group
a. Xylitol1. To impart sweetbess
b. Citric acid2. To impart acidity
c. Lycopene3. Pigment
d. Nycin4. Microbial restrictor

3. Answer the following:
a. Which fuels can be obtained by microbial processes? Why is it necessary to increase the use of such fuels?
Answer: Natural gases such as biogas, ethane, and methane can be obtained from the microbial process. It is necessary to use or increase this because it is man-made and natural gas so it is eco-friendly as well as cheaper than other fuels and also it is a renewable source for fuels. methane can be obtained by microbial anaerobic decomposition of urban agricultural and industrial waste. Ethanol, an alcohol is a clean (smokeless) fuel obtained during the fermentation of molasses by the yeast-
Saccharomyces.

b. How can the oil spills of rivers and oceans be cleaned?
Answer: Spilling of petroleum oil occurs in the ocean due to various reasons. This oil may prove fatal and toxic to aquatic organisms. It is not easy to remove the oil layer from the surface of the water by mechanical method. However, bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis can destroy pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB). HCB decomposes the hydrocarbons and brings about the reaction of carbon with oxygen. CO2 and water are formed in this 
process.

c. How can the soil be polluted by acid rain and be made fertile again?
Answer: Sulphuric acid is present in the acid rain and materials coming out of mines. You know that erosion of metals present in statues, bridges, and buildings occurs due to it. Sulphuric acid is the source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidase. Hence, these bacteria can 
control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain.
d. Explain the importance of biopesticides in organic farming.
Answer: Some microbes-containing inoculants are produced by the process of fermentation. These inoculants are sprayed on seeds before sowing and some of the inoculants are released into plants. Microbes in the inoculants help in plant growth by supplying nutrients. They improve the quality of vegetarian food. A solution containing Azotobacter and artificial nitrogenase is used in organic farming. Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology. Being toxic to insects, they do not consume the plants. Similar to bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses are useful as pesticides. Spinosad, a by-product of fermentation is a biopesticide.
e. What are the reasons for increasing the popularity of probiotic products?
Answer: 
  • These are also milk products but contain active bacteria e.g. Lactobacillus, Acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, etc. These microbes maintain the balance of intestinal microorganisms i.e. increase the population of microbes helping the digestion and decrease the population of harmful microbes (ex. Clostridium). 
  • Probiotic products are available in various forms like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut (pickle of cabbage), dark chocolate, miso soup, pickles, oils, corn syrup, artificial sweeteners
  • These products form the colonies of useful microbes in the alimentary canal and control other microbes and their metabolic activities, improve resistance, and lower the ill effects of harmful substances formed during metabolic activities.
  •  Useful microbes become inactive due to antibiotics; probiotics make them active again. Nowadays, probiotics are used for the treatment of diarrhea and treatment of poultry also.
f. How the bread and other products produced using baker’s yeast are nutritious?
Answer: Different types of bread are produced from flour or cereals. The dough is formed by mixing of baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, water, salt, and other necessary materials with flour. Compressed yeast is used in the commercial bakery industry. It is available in dry, granular form for domestic use. The yeast produced for commercial use contains various useful contents like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals. Due to this, bread and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutritive. 
 
g. Which precautions are necessary for proper decomposition of domestic 
waste?
Answer: It is important to take precautions for the decomposition of domestic waste or household waste. The containers that held pickles, jams, coffee, sugar, salt, etc. must be reused. Waste collection, segregation, transportation, and recycling should be completed minutely so that no toxic wastes are produced from the materials. Chemical waste must be kept in a separate bin. Wet waste can be used in compost formation. Segregation of wet and dry waste must be done in the house. Biodegradable waste includes vegetable and fruit peels whereas non-biodegradable waste includes computers, batteries, etc. Biodegradable waste products are used for making manure, which can be used in plant pots, parks, etc
h. Why is it necessary to ban the use of plastic bags.
Answer: Plastic bags are a very big problem for the environment. They are mostly made of organic polymers which are nothing but long chains of carbon atoms. These polymers are very stable chemically and hence, cannot be broken down by environmental factors easily. Plastic bags are widely used as they are important industrially and are also cheap

Various reasons to ban plastic bags: 
  1.  Plastic bags pollute not only our water but also our land.
  2. A lot of energy is used in producing these bags.
  3.  Plastic bags do not degrade.
  4.  Plastic bags are toxic.
  5.  Plastic bags are harmful to wildlife and marine life. 
  6. Plastic bags are harmful to human health. 
  7. Plastic bags are not easy to recycle.
  8. Plastic bags clog stormwater drains. Even if we did decide to recycle plastic bags, these materials still end up in oceans and landfills.

4. Complete the following conceptual picture.

Answer: 

5. Give scientific reasons.
a. Use of mutant strains has been increased in industrial microbiology.
Answer: The use of mutant strains has been 
increased in industrial microbiology because Mutant strains are genetically improved strains that give higher yields and therefore decrease the cost of the products. Mutant strains are formed by alterations of nucleotides in the DNA of microorganisms to suit the needs of the industry. Mutant strains are used for producing virus-resistant bacterial strains are used in the Dairy industry (milk products) to avoid unwanted bacteria and viruses attacking and membering the original ones. In the alcohol industry mutant strains improve the flavor and quality of wine or beer.

b. Enzymes obtained by the microbial process are mixed with detergents.
Answer: Enzymes obtained by microbial 
the process is mixed with detergents because When detergents are mixed with microbial enzymes, they start working more efficiently. The cleaning process takes place at lower temperatures. Therefore, for better results, enzymes obtained by the microbial process are mixed with detergents.
 
c. Microbial enzymes are used instead of chemical catalysts in the chemical industry.
Answer: Microbial enzymes are used instead of chemical catalysts in the chemical 
industry because Now a day, instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in the chemical industry. These enzymes are active at low temperatures, pH, and 
pressure; due to which energy is saved, and erosion-proof instruments are also 
not necessary. Enzymes carry out specific processes; hence unnecessary by-
products are not formed due to which expenses on purification are minimized.

6. Complete the following conceptual picture.

Answer: 


7. Complete the following conceptual picture related to environmental management.

Answer: 


Answer the following.

a. What is the role of microbes in compost production?
Answer: Composting is a type of waste that is biodegradable so that it can be broken down into different substances. So here microbes carry out respiration and get their energy from waste hence their survival reason is from waste only and they need this energy to grow the byproduct as Compost. Landfill sites are created by digging deep pits away from residential areas and the biodegradable waste is dumped into it.


b. What are the benefits of mixing ethanol with petrol and diesel?
Answer: Ethanol, an alcohol is a clean (smokeless) fuel obtained during
fermentation of molasses by the yeast-
Saccharomyces.it is an easily available and cheap source.


c. Which plants are cultivated to obtain the fuel?
Answermost popularly used biofuel plants are corn, sugarcane, palm oil, jatropha, soybean, canola, cottonseed, sunflower, and wheat.


d. Which fuels are obtained from biomass?
Answer: fuels obtained from biomass is 
biogas and biodiesel. The biogas is obtained from the dung of cattle. The fermentation of cattle dung gives rise to methane. From methane, methanol is obtained. Ethanol is obtained from molasses of sugarcane. Some crops also give ethanol. In some countries, special crops are cultivated for biodiesel.


e. How does the bread become spongy?
Answer:  breads are produced from flour or cereals. The dough is formed by mixing of baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, water, salt, and other necessary materials with flour. Due to the fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast, sugar is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethanol. The dough rises up due to CO2 and the bread becomes spongy.

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