Class 12 Biology New Syllabus Maharashtra Board, Pattern and Marks

Class 12 Biology New Syllabus Maharashtra Board: Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. Recently, the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science.

Maharashtra State Board for Secondary and Higher Secondary Education (MSBSHSE) has prescribed the Class 12 Biology New Syllabus Maharashtra Board and paper pattern of HSC Biology subject for students who will be studying in Class 12th. The Biology subjects can be selected as an elective subject of the seven subjects to be studied by students at the higher secondary level. The Maharashtra Board HSC Biology question paper has been given a weightage of 70 marks for Theory Paper and 30 marks for Practical Paper.

Class 12 Biology New Syllabus Maharashtra Board

The Class 12 Biology New Syllabus Maharashtra Board has been designed under the supervision of the Council of Boards of School Education in India (COBSE). Maharashtra Board HSC Biology paper has been revised so that students appearing for national level entrance exams like National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET), AIIMS, MHT CET, etc. The syllabus for Biology subjects includes Botany and Zoology.

Objectives of the biology syllabus

  • Promote the inherent skill of observation.
  • Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop a scientific attitude toward biological phenomena.
  • Help students to understand the functioning of organisms.
  • Make students aware of issues of global importance.
  • Guide students to perform easy experiments for a better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work.
  • Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare.

Class 12 Biology New Syllabus Maharashtra Board

Unit 1: Reproduction 

  • Chapter 1: Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants.
  • Chapter 2. Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals.

What we have to learn in this section:

  • Know the significance of reproduction in the life of species.
  • Explain the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction in plants andanimals.
  • Recognize the importance of asexual and sexual reproduction in plants andanimals.
  • Compare and analyze different modes of asexual reproduction.
  • Know the reduction in the size of gametophytic generation.
  • Know the different adaptation in the flowers depending upon the agency toaccomplish pollination.
  • Describes the mechanism of sexual reproduction.
  • Recognize, analyze and compare structural similarities, differences, and progressive evolutionary changes in reproduction in lower and higher plants and animals.
  • Explain embryo development both in plants and animals.

Unit 2 : Genetics and Evolution 

  • Chapter 3. Inheritance and Variation.
  • Chapter 4. Molecular Basis of Inheritance.
  • Chapter 5. Origin and Evolution of Life

What we have to learn in this section:

  • Explain the mechanism of inheritance and variation.
  • Elaborate on the role of the chromosome, and its molecular basis of heredity.
  • Explain the laws of inheritance and further elaborate on the reasons for variation.
  • Describe the basis of the origin of life, geological time scale, and evidence. 
  • Explain, describe and compare different theories of evolution.
  • Explains the structure and functions of genetic materials. 
  • The use of genetics in studying patterns of sex determination in honey bees, birds, and human beings mentions different genetic disorders. 
  • Explain inheritance of sex linked characters in humans.
  • Define the concept of genomics, applications of genetic engineering, and gene regulation.
  • Explain the chromosomal theory of inheritance, linkage, and crossing over.
  • Understands evidence for DNA as genetic material, genetic code.

Unit 3: Physiology 

  • Chapter 6. Plant Water Relation.
  • Chapter 7. Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition.
  • Chapter 8. Respiration and Circulation.
  • Chapter 9. Control and Co-ordination

What we have to learn in this section:

  1. Explain the scientific reasons behind various physiological activities based on relationships.
  2. Understand the relationship between chemical reactions, the structural organization involved, and its impact on organisms.
  3. Analyze and explain the experimental setup.
  4. Draw diagrams and give comments on findings and observations. 
  5. Describe the contribution of different workers or scientists and their significance.
  6. Understand and explain the role of physiology in biology.
  7. Explain and draw mechanisms of different physiological processess.
  8. Explain the importance, source, and methods of absorption of water, water as the ‘elixir of life.
  9. Explain loss of excess water, significance of transpiration, transpiration as ‘necessary evil’.
  10. Define growth, types of growth, phases of growth, growth curves, and growth rates.
  11. Explain minerals, their role, sources, and methods of absorbtion.
  12. Differentiate respiration.
  13. Explain circulatory system.

Unit 4: Applied Biology 

  • Chapter 10. Human Health and Diseases
  • Chapter 11. Enhancement of Food Production
  • Chapter 12. Biotechnology

What we have to learn in this section:

  1. Explains the correlation between diseases and health. 
  2. Identify and elaborate on various types and effects of Addications.
  3. Elaborate on the role of microbes in food production.
  4. Describes, compares, and reviews different techniques developed for the betterment of life.
  5. Understand applications of the technology used to overcome problems in daily life. 
  6. Suggest remedial measures for improvement of social health. 
  7. Describe and suggest career opportunities in the fields of dairy, poultry, and other Environment.

Unit 5: Ecology and Environment 

  • Chapter 13. Organisms and Populations 
  • Chapter 14. Ecosystems and Energy Flow
  • Chapter 15. Biodiversity, Conservation, and Environmental Issues

What we have to learn in this section:

  1. Explains the correlation, interaction and effect of environment on organisms.
  2. Understand and explain the relationship in the ecosystem, and the role of energy flow. 
  3. Analyze, understand and explain environmental issues and their impact.
  4. Contribute, plan and implement programs about conservation of environment. 
  5. Use information gathered to save biodiversity, find remedies to solve environmental issues.

Types of Questions and Marking Scheme

Type of questions

  • Multiple Choices-Based Questions
  • Very Short Answer type questions
  • Short Answer I
  • Short Answer II
  • Long Answer type questions

Marking Scheme

  • The MCQs and VSA type of questions carry 1 mark
  • Short Answer Type I questions carry 2 marks
  • Short Answer Type II questions carry 3 marks
  • Long Answer Type questions carry 5 marks

The difficulty level of HSC

  • Most difficulty question – 20%
  • Average difficulty questions -50%
  • Easy questions – 30

Maharashtra State Board Class 12 Biology Solutions

How to Study the Maharashtra State Board Biology Textbook

  • Firstly Read the chapter once, marking important lines with a pencil.
  • Focus on understanding diagrams and labels, and highlighting them.
  • On the second read, highlight key points and make notes of extra examples from other sources.
  • Note down unnamed descriptions for clarity.
  • Use sticky notes to remember important points and review them often.
  • Flip through the book during your free time to reinforce your learning.

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