Definition of soil texture and classification of soil
Definition Soil texture:
Soil is very important part of environment. Soil contains particles of different sizes. Soil particles vary in size (ranging from 10m to 10m in diameter), and their chemical composition and physicochemical properties vary greatly. It can be divided into several grades according to the size of the soil particle size and its properties. Countries around the world usually have different classification standards for soil particle size. Soil texture refers to the relative proportion of sand, silt and clay during a soil. Texture is a vital soil characteristic as a result of it’ll part verify water intake rates (absorption), water storage in the soil, and the ease of tillage operation, aeration status etc. and combinely influence soil fertility.
Classification of soil texture:
- Sandy soil: sandy soil is easy to cultivate or till, has sufficient aeration for good root growth and is easily wetted, but it also dries rapidly and easily loses plant nutrients through leaching. It is easy to plough this soil. But it is less fertile. This is because the particles of Sandy soil are made of the mineral called silicon dioxide, it is also called quartz. Sandy soil particles do not disslove in water and, therefore , it has very little capacity to supply nutrients. Sandy soil are weak water storage capacity, low nutrient content, poor fertilizer retention ability, and rapid soil temperature change, but good aeration, water permeability, and easy farming. Because the sandy soil contains more sand particles, less clay particles, and larger inter-particle voids, the water storage capacity is weak and the drought resistance ability is poor. The sandy soil itself is relatively poor in nutrients. Due to the lack of clay (inorganic colloid) and OM (organic colloid), the fertilizer retention is poor; the aeration and water permeability are good, which is conducive to the activity of aerobic microorganisms.
- Clay soil: The proportion of small particles is maximum . Clay soil feel smooth to touch. Clay soil has a high water holding capacity. Clay particles feel very plastic and exhibit stickiness when wet and are hard under dry conditions. The main fertility characteristics of clay soil are good water and fertilizer retention, rich nutrient content, relatively stable soil temperature, but poor ventilation and water permeability, and it is difficult to cultivate (hard when dry, and wet when wet). Clay, so it is better to cultivate under certain water content conditions). Because the clay soil contains more clay particles, the particles are small, and the capillary action between the pores is developed, it can save a lot of water, but the water loss is fast, and the water retention and drought resistance ability is poor. Clay soil contains more clay particles. On the one hand, the clay particles themselves are rich in nutrients.
- Silt soil: silt soil particle are medium in size. It is not as ploughable as compare to Sandy soil. However, it is much more ploughable than clay soil. Slit soil contain a large proportion of organic materials . Slit soil supply nutrient is much greater .slit soil is also called sedimentary soil.
Uses of Soil:
- Plant Conservation: Provide a medium for plant growth. The root of the plant must grow in the soil, through the mechanical support force of the soil to the plant, and through the absorption of nutrients through the roots, the plant can sustain life. Therefore, in the ecosystem, different soil properties will produce different vegetation conditions, and also indirectly affect the types of animal communities. In other words, the soil has the function of agricultural production, and almost all crops must be grown in the soil in order to be harvested.
- Water Conservation: soil holds water. As a result, by means of bunds and lakes, we can get water for use thought out the year.
- Plasticity: soil can given any required shape. This property of soil is called plasticity. Because of its plasticity , we can be baked to make articles of a variety of shapes. These articles can be baked to make them hard. Water storage earthen pots, earthen lamps, idols, bricks, are articles made from soil.