Ecology MCQ Questions and Answers Pdf

1. The term for the new science – “ecology” was proposed_______
a) Ch. Darwin
b) V.I. Vernadsky
c) Aristotle
d) E. Haeckel
Answer: D) E. Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel, a German biologist, coined the term “ecology” in 1866. He derived it from the Greek words “oikos,” meaning “house” or “environment,” and “logos,” meaning “study of.

2. First ecologist is________
a) Pliny the Elder
b) Theophrastus
c) Aristotle
d) Hippocrates
Answer: C) Aristotle
Aristotle is often regarded as the first ecologist because he made early observations on the relationships between organisms and their environments, laying the groundwork for the science of ecology.

3. The concept of an ecosystem was introduced by an English botanist …
a) V. Vernadsky
b) G. Gause
c) V. Dokuchaev
d) Arthur Tensley
Answer: D) Arthur Tansley
Arthur Tansley introduced the concept of the ecosystem in 1935, defining it as a system comprising both organisms and their physical environment.

4. Ecology is the science of________
a) the impact of pollution on human health
b) the relationship of living organisms with each other and with the environment
c) the impact of pollution on the environment
d) the impact of human activities on the environment
Answer: B) the relationship of living organisms with each other and with the environment
Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their physical surroundings.

5. Ecology can be divided into…
a) theoretical and applied
b) applied and social
c) general and theoretical
d) private and applied
Answer: A) theoretical and applied
Theoretical ecology focuses on understanding the principles and models that govern ecological interactions, while applied ecology uses this knowledge to solve practical environmental problems.

6. The main, traditional part of ecology as a biological science
a) theoretical
b) practical
c) private
d) general
Answer: D) general
General ecology encompasses the fundamental principles and concepts that apply to all ecological studies, providing a broad understanding of ecological relationships and processes.

7. One of the founders of “animal ecology”
a) M.V. Lomonosov
b) V.I. Vernadsky
c) S.P. Krasheninnikov
d) P.S. Pallas
Answer: D) P.S. Pallas
Peter Simon Pallas was a prominent zoologist and explorer who made significant contributions to the study of animal ecology through his extensive field observations and classifications.

8. Branch of applied ecology, which deals with the study of ways of the best settlement of people in cities, taking into account their interests_______
a) recreational ecology
b) industrial (engineering ecology
c) urban ecology
d) building ecology
Answer: C) urban ecology
Urban ecology focuses on the interactions between living organisms and their urban environment, aiming to create sustainable and livable cities.

9. He discovered the evolution of life and made a classification of animals …
a) K. Line
b) Ch. Darwin
c) J.B. Lamarck
d) M.V. Lomonosov
Answer: C) J.B. Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was an early proponent of the idea that organisms evolve over time and he developed one of the first classifications of animals, contributing significantly to the field of biology.

10. Such a problem as the “greenhouse effect” will be solved at the … level.
a) regional
b) national
c) interstate
d) global
Answer: D) global
The greenhouse effect, which leads to global warming, is a worldwide issue that requires international cooperation and global solutions to mitigate its impact.

11. A branch of ecology that develops economic mechanisms for rational use of natural resources and opportunities to reduce the negative impact on the environment_______
a) legal ecology
b) human ecology
c) general ecology
d) economic ecology
Answer: D) economic ecology
Economic ecology focuses on integrating ecological principles with economic practices to promote sustainable use of natural resources and minimize environmental impact.

12. Branch of general ecology that studies the relationship between organisms of the same species (within populations) and the environment________
a) demecology
b) animal ecology
c) autecology
d) synecology
Answer: A) demecology
Demecology, or population ecology, examines the interactions of organisms within a population and how these interactions influence population dynamics and environmental conditions.

13. The main environmental problems of mankind are associated with________
a) environmental crisis
b) population growth, depletion and degradation of natural resources and environmental pollution
c) environmental pollution
d) irrational use of natural resources
Answer: C) environmental pollution
Environmental pollution, including air, water, and soil contamination, is a primary concern affecting ecosystems and human health globally.

14. The pyramid of biomass is inverted in___________
a) forest ecosystem
b) grassland ecosystem
c) fresh water ecosystem
d) tundra
Answer: C) fresh water ecosystem
In some aquatic ecosystems, the biomass pyramid can be inverted because the biomass of primary consumers (zooplankton) can exceed that of the producers (phytoplankton) at any given time.

15. The final stable community in an ecological succession is called the_______
a) final community
b) ultimate community
c) climax community
d) seral community
Answer: C) climax community
A climax community represents the final, stable stage of ecological succession, where the ecosystem achieves balance and remains relatively unchanged until disrupted by an external force.

16. The concept of ecological pyramid was first proposed by_______
a) E.P. Odum
b) A.G. Tansley
c) Juday
d) Charles Elton
Answer: D) Charles Elton
Explanation: Charles Elton introduced the concept of ecological pyramids in 1927 to illustrate the structure and function of ecosystems through trophic levels.

17. All the statements are correct regarding ecological succession except________
a) It is a random process
b) Species diversity increases as succession proceeds
c) The food chain relationships becomes more complex
d) The role of decomposers becomes more and more important
Answer: A) It is a random process
Ecological succession is a directional and predictable process, not random. It involves a series of progressive changes in species composition within a community over time.

18. Which of the following statement is incorrect regarding ecological pyramids________
a) The pyramid of energy is inverted in ocean ecosystem
b) The pyramid of biomass is inverted in aquatic ecosystem
c) The pyramid of numbers is upright in grass land ecosystem
d) The pyramid of biomass is upright in grass land ecosystem
Answer: A) The pyramid of energy is inverted in ocean ecosystem
The pyramid of energy is never inverted because energy transfer between trophic levels is always less efficient, leading to a decrease in available energy at higher trophic levels.

19. A group of individuals of a plant or animal species, inhabiting agiven area is called___________
a) Biome
b) Population
c) Ecosystem
d) Community
Answer: B) Population
A population refers to a group of individuals of the same species living in a specific area and capable of interbreeding.

20. The greenhouse effect associated with the accumulation of carbon dioxide, soot and other particulate matter in the atmosphere will cause_________
a) a decrease in the transparency of the atmosphere, which will lead to cooling
b) an increase in average temperature and will contribute to an improvement in the climate on the planet
c) an increase in temperature and will lead to adverse changes in the biosphere
d) None of these
Answer: C) an increase in temperature and will lead to adverse changes in the biosphere
The greenhouse effect leads to global warming, causing an increase in Earth’s average temperature and resulting in various negative impacts on the biosphere, such as climate change and ecosystem disruption.

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