Endocrine Test with Answers:
- The nervous system and endocrine glands are the two main communication and coordination mechanisms in the human body.
- They regulate almost all organ systems. Although the nervous and endocrine systems work closely together, they differ in several ways.
- The nervous system communicates through electrical signals called nerve impulses, which transmit information quickly and often have short-lived effects.
- On the other hand, in the endocrine system, communicates through chemical signals, through substances called hormones.
- The endocrine system responds more slowly, often resulting in longer-lasting effects.
- The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands that produce hormones and are widely distributed throughout the body.
- Endocrine glands are ductless glands, that is, they secrete hormones directly into (blood) capillaries.
- The endocrine system works through the secretion of hormones.
- Hormones are chemical messengers that influence or control the activity of other tissues or organs.
- Most hormones are carried by the blood to other parts of the body, with effects on more distant tissues.
- The main endocrine glands are the Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid glands, Adrenal glands, Pancreas, Gonads (ovaries and testes), Thymus, Pineal gland
The Endocrine System Quiz:
1. Hormones that are not secreted by the pituitary gland are________
2. Neurohormone refers to________
a) hormones present in the nervous system
b) hormones that act on nerve cells
c) hormones secreted by nerve cells
d) hormones that excite the nervous system
3. The way most hormones released by endocrine glands in the body are transferred to target tissues is________
a) distant secretion
b) luminal secretion
4. Which of the following hormones is a steroid hormone________
c) growth hormone
5. Which of the following hormones are nitrogenous hormones__________
d) thyroid stimulating hormone
6. The first step in the mechanism of action of steroid hormones is the interaction with target cells________
a) membrane receptor binding
b) cytoplasmic receptor binding
c) nuclear receptor binding
d) excitatory G-protein binding
7. Which of the following hormones is secreted by the pituitary gland?
a) adrenocorticotropic hormone
b) adrenal cortex hormones
d) Antidiuretic hormone
8. The role of growth hormone in metabolism is______
a) to promote the breakdown of protein
b) to promote fat synthesis
c) to inhibit the oxidation of fatty acids
d) High doses of growth hormone inhibit the utilization of glucose and increase blood sugar
9. Hypoglycemia in a patient with diabetes can be caused by:
a) By injecting an inadequately large dose of insulin
b) Drinking alcohol
c) Taking sulfonylurea drugs
d) All of these
10. Chemical messengers secreted by ductless glands are called___________
11. The indications for a glucose tolerance test are if the patient has:
a) Thirst and polyuria
b) Recurrent furunculosis
c) Both a and b
d) D Level of glucose in the blood on an empty stomach of more than 10 mmol / l
12. Typical clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis are:
a) Weight loss
b) Increased irritability
c) Both A and B
d) D Constipation
13. The most informative method for detecting thyroid cancer is:
a) Thyroid scintigraphy
b) Palpation examination
c) Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland
d) Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland
14. Thyrotoxic syndrome can occur:
a) In diffuse toxic goiter
b) With Hashimoto’s goiter
c) In subacute thyroiditis
d) All of these
15. The most likely cause of blindness in a long-term diabetic patient is:
c) Proliferating retinopathy
d) Atrophy of the optic nerves
16. All statements regarding thyroid storm are true except for the following:
a) Surgery and infections can trigger a thyroid storm.
b) The development of a crisis is associated with a sudden sharp rise in the level of thyroid hormones in the blood
c) In case of a thyrotoxic crisis, the administration of radioactive iodine is effective
d) In the treatment of a crisis, it is advisable to use beta-blockers
17. When glucosuria is detected in a patient, it is first necessary:
a) Determine the level of glucose in the blood on an empty stomach.
b) Carry out a glucose tolerance test
c) Prescribe sulfonylurea drugs
d) Limit carbohydrate intake
18. This hormone is responsible for the “fight-or-flight” response
a) Thyroxine and melatonin
b) insulin and glucagon
c) epinephrine and norepinephrine
d) oestrogen and progesterone
19. Regarding type 1 diabetes, the following is true:
a) Diabetes requires continuous treatment with insulin
b) Diabetes more often occurs at a young age
c) In the course of diabetes, it is accompanied by a tendency to ketoacidosis
d) All of these
20. Which of the following is not a function of insulin______
a) decreasing glycogenolysis
21. Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands is that__________
a) endocrine glands release hormones, exocrine glands release waste
b) endocrine glands are interconnected, exocrine glands are totally independent
c) endocrine glands are formed by epithelial tissue, exocrine glands are connective tissues primarily
d) endocrine glands are ductless, exocrine glands release secretions into ducts or at the surface of the body